bookseller, publisher; bibliopole[obs3], bibliopolist[obs3];
librarian; bookstore, bookshop, bookseller's shop.
knowledge of books, bibliography; book learning &c. (knowledge) 490.
Phr. "among the giant fossils of my past" [E. B. Browning]; craignez
tout d'un auteur en courroux[Fr]; "for authors nobler palms remain" [Pope];
"I lived to write and wrote to live" [Rogers]; "look in thy heart and
write" [Sidney]; "there is no Past so long as Books shall live" [Bulwer
Lytton]; "the public mind is the creation of the Master-Writers"
[Disraeli]; "volumes that I prize above my dukedom" [Tempest].
#594. Description. -- N. description, account, statement, report;
expose &c. (disclosure) 529 specification, particulars; state of facts,
summary of facts; brief &c. (abstract) 596; return &c. (record) 551;
catalogue raisonne &c. (list) 86[Fr]; guidebook &c. (information) 527.
delineation &c (representation) 554; sketch; monograph; minute
account, detailed particular account, circumstantial account, graphic
account; narration, recital, rehearsal, relation.
historiography[obs3], chronography[obs3]; historic Muse, Clio;
history; biography, autobiography; necrology, obituary.
narrative, history; memoir, memorials; annals &c. (chronicle) 551;
saga; tradition, legend, story, tale, historiette[obs3]; personal
narrative, journal, life, adventures, fortunes, experiences, confessions;
anecdote, ana[obs3], trait.
work of fiction, novel, romance, Minerva press; fairy tale, nursery
tale; fable, parable, apologue[obs3]; dime novel, penny dreadful, shilling
relator &c. v.; raconteur, historian &c. (recorder) 553; biographer,
V. describe; set forth &c. (state) 535; draw a picture, picture;
portray &c. (represent) 554; characterize, particularize; narrate, relate,
recite, recount, sum up, run over, recapitulate, rehearse, fight one's
battles over again.
unfold a tale &c. (disclose) 529; tell; give an account of, render an
account of; report, make a report, draw up a statement.
detail; enter into particulars, enter into details, descend to
particulars, descend to details; itemize.
Adj. descriptive, graphic, narrative, epic, suggestive, well-drawn;
historic; traditional, traditionary; legendary; anecdotic[obs3], storied;
described &c. v.
Phr. furor scribendi[Lat].
#595. Dissertation. -- N. dissertation, treatise, essay; thesis,
theme; monograph, tract, tractate[obs3], tractation[obs3]; discourse,
memoir, disquisition, lecture, sermon, homily, pandect[obs3]; excursus.
commentary, review, critique, criticism, article; leader, leading
article; editorial; running commentary.
investigation &c. (inquiry) 461; study &c. (consideration) 451;
discussion &c. (reasoning) 476; exposition &c. (explanation) 522.
commentator, critic, essayist, pamphleteer.
V. expound upon a subject, dissert upon a subject[obs3], descant upon
a subject, write upon a subject, touch upon a subject; treat a subject,
treat a subject thoroughly, treat of a subject, take up a subject,
ventilate a subject, discuss a subject, deal with a subject, go into a
subject, go into a subject at length, canvass a subject, handle a subject,
do justice to a subject.
hold forth[oral dissertation], discourse, delve into.
Adj. discursive, discoursive[obs3]; disquisitionary[obs3]; expository.
<-- p. 181 -->
#596. Compendium. -- N. compend, compendium; abstract, precis,
epitome, multum in parvo[Lat], analysis, pandect[obs3], digest, sum and
substance, brief, abridgment, summary, apercu, draft, minute, note;
excerpt; synopsis, textbook, conspectus, outlines, syllabus, contents,
album; scrap book, note book, memorandum book, commonplace book;
extracts, excerpta[obs3], cuttings; fugitive pieces, fugitive writing;
spicilegium[obs3], flowers, anthology, collectanea[obs3], analecta[obs3];
recapitulation, resume, review.
abbreviation, abbreviature[obs3]; contraction; shortening &c. 201;
compression &c. 195.
V. abridge, abstract, epitomize, summarize; make an abstract, prepare
an abstract, draw an abstract, compile an abstract &c. n.
recapitulate, review, skim, run over, sum up.
abbreviate &c. (shorten) 201; condense &c. (compress) 195; compile &c.
Adj. compendious, synoptic, analectic[obs3]; abrege[Fr], abridged &c.
Adv. in short, in epitome, in substance, in few words.
Phr. it lies in a nutshell.
#597. Poetry. -- N. poetry, poetics, poesy, Muse, Calliope, tuneful
Nine, Parnassus, Helicon[obs3], Pierides, Pierian spring.
versification, rhyming, making verses; prosody, orthometry[obs3].
poem; epic, epic poem; epopee[obs3], epopoea, ode, epode[obs3], idyl,
lyric, eclogue, pastoral, bucolic, dithyramb, anacreontic[obs3], sonnet,
roundelay, rondeau[Fr], rondo, madrigal, canzonet[obs3], cento[obs3],
*monody, elegy; amoebaeum, ghazal[obs3], palinode.
dramatic poetry, lyric poetry; opera; posy, anthology; disjecta membra
song[Lat], ballad, lay; love song, drinking song, war song, sea song;
lullaby; music &c. 415; nursery rhymes.
[Bad poetry] doggerel, Hudibrastic verse[obs3], prose run mad;
macaronics[obs3]; macaronic verse[obs3], leonine verse; runes.
canto, stanza, distich, verse, line, couplet, triplet, quatrain;
verse, rhyme, assonance, crambo[obs3], meter, measure, foot, numbers,
strain, rhythm; accentuation &c. (voice) 580; dactyl, spondee, trochee,
anapest &c.; hexameter, pentameter; Alexandrine; anacrusis[obs3],
antispast[obs3], blank verse, ictus.
elegiacs &c. adj.; elegiac verse, elegaic meter, elegaic poetry.
poet, poet laureate; laureate; bard, lyrist[obs3], scald, skald[obs3],
troubadour, trouvere[Fr]; minstrel; minnesinger, meistersinger[Ger];
improvisatore[obs3]; versifier, sonneteer; rhymer, rhymist[obs3],
rhymester; ballad monger, runer[obs3]; poetaster; genus irritabile vatum
V. poetize, sing, versify, make verses, rhyme, scan.
Adj. poetic, poetical; lyric, lyrical, tuneful, epic, dithyrambic &c.
n.; metrical; a catalectin[obs3]; elegiac, iambic, trochaic,
anapestic[obs3]; amoebaeic, Melibean, skaldic[obs3]; Ionic, Sapphic,
Phr. "a poem round and perfect as a star" [Alex. Smith]; Dichtung und
Wahrheit [Ger]; furor poeticus[Lat]; "his virtues formed the magic of his
song" [Hayley]; "I do but sing because I must" [Tennyson]; "I learnt life
from the poets" [de Stael]; licentia vatum[Lat]; mutum est pictura
poema[Lat]; "O for a muse of fire!" [Henry V]; "sweet food of sweetly
uttered knowledge" [Sidney]; "the true poem is the poet's mind" [Emerson];
Volk der Dichter und Denker[Ger]; "wisdom married to immortal verse"
#598. Prose. -- N. prose, prose writer. prosaicism[obs3],
prosaism[obs3], prosaist[obs3], proser[obs3].
write prose, write in prose.
Adj. prosal[obs3],prosy, prosaic; unpoetic, unpoetical[obs3].
rhymeless[obs3], unrhymed, in prose, not in verse.
<-- p. 182 -->
#599. The Drama. -- N. the drama, the stage, the theater, the play;
film the film, movies, motion pictures, cinema, cinematography;
theatricals, dramaturgy, histrionic art, buskin, sock, cothurnus[obs3],
Melpomene and Thalia, Thespis.
play, drama, stage play, piece[Fr], five-act play, tragedy, comedy,
opera, vaudeville, comedietta[obs3], lever de rideau[Fr], interlude,
afterpiece[obs3], exode[obs3], farce, divertissement, extravaganza,
burletta[obs3], harlequinade[obs3], pantomime, burlesque, opera bouffe[Fr],
ballet, spectacle, masque, drame comedie drame[Fr]; melodrama,
melodrame[obs3]; comidie larmoyante[Fr], sensation drama; tragicomedy,
farcical-comedy; monodrame monologue[obs3];duologue trilogy; charade,
proverbs; mystery, miracle play; musical, musical comedy.
[movies] western, horse opera; flick [coll.]; spy film, love story,
adventure film, documentary, nature film; pornographic film, smoker, skin
flick, X-rated film.
act, scene, tableau; induction, introduction; prologue, epilogue;
performance, representation, mise en scene[French], stagery[obs3], jeu
de theatre[French]; acting; gesture &c. 550; impersonation &c. 554; stage
business, gag, buffoonery.
light comedy, genteel comedy, low comedy.
theater; playhouse, opera house; house; music hall; amphitheater,
circus, hippodrome, theater in the round; puppet show, fantoccini[obs3];
marionettes, Punch and Judy.
auditory, auditorium, front of the house, stalls, boxes, pit, gallery,
parquet; greenroom, coulisses[Fr].
flat; drop, drop scene; wing, screen, side scene; transformation
scene, curtain, act drop; proscenium.
stage, scene, scenery, the boards; trap, mezzanine floor; flies;
floats, footlights; offstage; orchestra.
theatrical costume, theatrical properties.
movie studio, back lot, on location.
part, role, character, dramatis personae[Lat]; repertoire.
actor, thespian, player; method actor; stage player, strolling player;
stager, performer; mime, mimer[obs3]; artists; comedian, tragedian;
tragedienne, Roscius; star, movie star, star of stage and screen,
superstar, idol, sex symbol; supporting actor, supporting cast; ham,
hamfatter *[obs3]; masker[obs3]. pantomimist, clown harlequin, buffo[obs3],
buffoon, farceur, grimacer, pantaloon, columbine; punchinello[obs3];
pulcinello[obs3], pulcinella[obs3]; extra, bit-player, walk-on role, cameo
appearance; mute, figurante[obs3], general utility; super, supernumerary.
company; first tragedian, prima donna[Sp], protagonist; jeune
premier[French]; debutant, debutante[French]; light comedian, genteel
comedian, low comedian; walking gentleman, amoroso[obs3], heavy father,
ingenue[French], jeune veuve[French].
mummer, guiser[obs3], guisard[obs3], gysart |, masque.
mountebank, Jack Pudding; tumbler, posture master, acrobat;
contortionist; ballet dancer, ballet girl; chorus singer; coryphee
property man, costumier, machinist; prompter, call boy; manager;
director, stage manager, acting manager.
producer, entrepreneur, impresario; backer, investor, angel[fig].
dramatic author, dramatic writer; play writer, playwright; dramatist,
V. act, play, perform; put on the stage; personate &c. 554; mimic &c.
(imitate) 19; enact; play a part, act a part, go through a part, perform a
part; rehearse, spout, gag, rant; "strut and fret one's hour upon a stage";
tread the boards, tread the stage; come out; star it.
Adj. dramatic; theatric, theatrical; scenic, histrionic, comic,
tragic, buskined[obs3], farcical, tragicomic, melodramatic, operatic;
Adv. on the stage, on the boards; on film; before the floats, before
an audience; behind the scenes.
Phr. fere totus mundus exercet histrionem [Lat][Petronius Arbiter];
"suit the action to the word, the word to the action" [Hamlet]; "the play's
the thing" [Hamlet]; "to wake the soul by tender strokes of art" [Pope].
<-- p. 183 -->
WORDS RELATING TO THE VOLUNTARY POWERS
Division (I) INDIVIDUAL VOLITION
Section I. VOLITION IN GENERAL
1. Acts of Volition
#600. Will. -- N. will, volition, conation[obs3], velleity; liberum
arbitrium[Lat]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c. 748; discretion;
option &c. (choice) 609; voluntariness[obs3]; spontaneity, spontaneousness;
pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c. (inclination) 602;
intention &c. 620; predetermination &c. 611; selfcontrol &c. determination
&c. (resolution) 604; force of will.
V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c. (resolve) 604;
enjoin; settle &c. (choose) 609; volunteer.
have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c. (freedom) 748; have
it all one's own way; have one's will, have one's own way.
use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon oneself, take
one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do of one's own
accord, do upon one's own authority; originate &c. (cause) 153.
Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c. 748; optional;
discretional, discretionary; volitient[obs3], volitive[obs3].
minded &c. (willing) 602; prepense &c. (predetermined) 611[obs3];
intended &c. 620; autocratic; unbidden &c. (bid &c. 741); spontaneous;
original &c. (casual) 153; unconstrained.
Adv. voluntarily &c. adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte[Fr], a
discretion; al piacere[It]; ad libitum, ad arbitrium[Lat]; as one thinks
proper, as it seems good to; a beneplacito[It].
of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu[Lat], suo
motu[Lat], ex meromotu[Lat]; out of one's won head; by choice &c. 609;
purposely &c. (intentionally) 620; deliberately &c. 611.
Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas[Lat]; sic volo sic jubeo[Lat]; a vostro
beneplacito[It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere[Lat]; Deus
vult[Lat]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig leiden[Ger].
#601. Necessity. -- N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse;
inborn proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency;
natural impulse, predetermination.
necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c. 744; subjection
&c. 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity, imperious
necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse necessity; fate;
what must be.
destiny, destination; fatality, fate, kismet, doom, foredoom,
election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune;
fatalism; inevitableness &c. adj.; spell &c. 993.
star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates, Parcae,
Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel of Fortune,
Ides of March, Hobson's choice.
last shift, last resort; dernier ressort[Fr]; pis aller &c.
(substitute) 147[Fr]; necessaries &c. (requirement) 630.
necessarian[obs3], necessitarian[obs3]; fatalist; automaton.
V. lie under a necessity; befated[obs3], be doomed, be destined &c. in
for, under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's
fate &c. n. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be
unable to help.
destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a spell
&c. 992; necessitate; compel &c. 744.
Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisite) 630.
fated; destined &c. v.; elect; spellbound, compulsory
&c. (compel) 744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable,
irresistible, irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless[obs3], resistless.
involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical; unconscious,
unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c. (undesigned) 621; impulsive &c.
Adv. necessarily &c. adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate
rei[Lat]; needs must; perforce &c. 744; nolens volens[Lat]; will he nil he,
willy nilly, bon gre mal gre[Fr], willing or unwilling, coute que
faute de mieux[Fr]; by stress of; if need be.
Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping
it; it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its
way; the die is cast; jacta est alea[obs3][Lat]; che sara sara[French]; "it
is written"; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata
obstant[Latin]; diis aliter visum[obs3][Latin]; actum me invito
factus[Latin], non est meus actus[Latin]; aujord'hui roi demain
rien[French]; quisque suos patimur manes [Latin][Vergil];"The moving
finger writes and having writ moves on. Nor all your piety and wit can
bring it back to cancel half a line, nor all your tears wash out a word of
it."[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].
<-- p. 184 -->
#602. Willingness. -- N. willingness, voluntariness &c. adj[obs3].;
willing mind, heart.
disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor, mood,
vein; bent &c. (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c. (desire) 865; aptitude &c.
docility, docibleness[obs3]; persuasibleness[obs3],
persuasibility[obs3]; pliability &c. (softness) 324.
geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness,
forwardness; eagerness &c. (desire) 865.
asset &c. 488; compliance &c. 762; pleasure &c. (will) 600; gratuitous
labor of love; volunteer, volunteering.
V. be willing &c. adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief;
lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half a
mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c. 865.
see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488; comply
with &c. 762.
swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no scruple
of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jump at, catch at; meet halfway;
Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably-
minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the vein,
in the mood, in the humor, in the mind.
ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c. (desirous) 865;
docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible[obs3], easily persuaded,
facile, easy-going; tractable &c. (pliant) 324; genial, gracious, cordial,
cheering, hearty; content &c. (assenting) 488.
voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c. (ask &c. 765);
unforced &c. (free) 748.
Adv. willingly &c. adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with
pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with right
will; de bonne volonte[Fr], ex animo[Lat]; con amore[It], heart in hand,
nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord, graciously, with a
a la bonne heure[Fr]; by all means, by all manner of means; to one's
heart's content; yes &c. (assent) 488.
#603. Unwillingness. -- N. unwillingness &c. adj.; indisposition,
indisposedness[obs3]; disinclination, aversation[obs3]; nolleity[obs3],
nolition[obs3]; renitence[obs3], renitency; reluctance; indifference &c.
866; backwardness &c. adj.; slowness &c. 275; want of alacrity, want of
readiness; indocility &c. (obstinacy) 606[obs3].
scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of
conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil; hesitation
&c. (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c. 868.
averseness &c. (dislike) 867[obs3]; dissent &c. 489; refusal &c. 764.
V. be unwilling &c. adj.; nill; dislike &c. 867; grudge, begrudge; not
be able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to.
demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil,
shrink, swerve; hesitate &c. 605; avoid &c. 623.
oppose &c. 708; dissent &c. 489; refuse &c. 764.
Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined,
indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c. (opposed) 708;
laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c. 866; scrupulous;
squeamish &c. (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867; restiff|,
restive; demurring &c. v.; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; involuntary &c.
Adv. unwillingly &c. adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad,
with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against the
grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore against
one's grain; invita Minerva[Lat]; a contre caeur[Fr]; malgre soi[Fr]; in
spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens volens &c. (necessity)
601[Lat]; perforce &c. 744; under protest; no &c. 536; not for the world,
far be it from me.
<-- p. 185 -->
#604. Resolution. -- N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable
will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit, true
grit, grit [U. S. &can.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will; resolve
&c. (intent) 620; firmness &c. (stability) 150; energy, manliness, vigor;
game, pluck; resoluteness &c. (courage) 861; zeal &c. 682; aplomb;
desperation; devotion, devotedness.
mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession, self
reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self denial;
moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c. 604a; tenacity; obstinacy
&c. 606; bulldog; British lion.
V. have determination &c. n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c.
adj.; make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c. (judgment)
480; form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution,
come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring to a
crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c. (choice)
609; take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676.
devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard, kick
down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back against the
wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's stand; stand firm
&c. (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense, not listen to the
voice of the charmer.
buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay one's
shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's heart
into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the horns; rush in
medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist upon, make a point of;
set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.
stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c. (activity)
682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit *, go the whole
hog; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; go through fire and water, ride the
tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the storm.
Adj. resolved &c. v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded;
resolute &c. (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory,
tranchant[obs3]; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking[obs3]; firm, iron,
gritty [U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless,
not to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi[Lat]; inflexible &c.
(hard) 323; obstinate &c. 606; steady &c. (persevering) 604a.
earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon.
steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus[Lat].
Adv. resolutely &c. adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously,
joking apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a
man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c. (exertion) 686.
at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard at any price, at any cost, at
any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a bis ou a
blanc[Fr][obs3]; cost what it may; coute[Fr]; a tort et a travers[obs3];
once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine.
Phr. spes sibi quisque[Lat]; celui qui veut celui-la peut[Fr]; chi non
s'arrischia non guadagna[Fr][obs3]; frangas non flectes[Lat]; manu
forti[Lat]; tentanda via est[Lat].
#604a. Perseverance. -- N. perseverance; continuance &c. (inaction)
143; permanence &c. (absence of change) 141; firmness &c. (stability) 150.
constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose;
persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c. (industry) 682; pertinacy|,
pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c. 104
bottom, game, pluck, stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability,
indefatigableness; bulldog courage.
V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in
at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep on;
keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course, maintain
one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear up, keep up,
hold up; plod; stick to work &c. (work) 686; continue &c. 143; follow up;
die in harness, die at one's post.
Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating,
unwavering, unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping[obs3],
unflagging, undrooping[obs3]; steady as time; unrelenting,
unintermitting[obs3], unremitting; plodding; industrious &c. 682; strenuous
&c. 686; pertinacious; persisting, persistent.
solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c. 150;
unconquerable &c. (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last,
indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring.
Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin,
through fire and water; per fas et nefas[Lat]; without fail, sink or swim,
at any price, vogue la galere[Fr]..
Phr. never say die; give it the old college try; vestigia nulla
retrorsum[Lat]; aut vincer aut mori[Lat]; la garde meurt et ne se rend
pas[Fr]; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre[Fr].
<-- p. 186 -->
#605. Irresolution. -- N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose,
indecision; indetermination, undetermination|!; unsettlement; uncertainty
&c. 475; demur, suspense; hesitating &c. v., hesitation, hesitancy;
vacillation; changeableness &c. 149; fluctuation; alternation &c.
(oscillation) 314; caprice &c. 608.
fickleness, levity, legerete[Fr]; pliancy &c. (softness) 324;
weakness; timidity &c. 860; cowardice &c. 862; half measures.
waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly; wimp;
doughface [obs3][U. S.].
V. be irresolute &c. adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave
"ad referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c. (inactivity) 683;
remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker[obs3], hum and
haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with, coquet
with; will and will not, chaser-balancer[obs3]; go halfway, compromise,
make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger like a drunken man;
be afraid &c. 860; "let 'I dare not' wait upon 'I would'" [Macbeth]; falter,
vacillate &c. 149; change &c. 140; retract &c. 607; fluctuate;
pendulate[obs3]; alternate &c. (oscillate) 314; keep off and on, play fast
and loose; blow hot and cold &c. (caprice) 608.
shuffle, palter, blink; trim.
Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted;
undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous;
hesitating &c. v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c. (uncertain) 475.
vacillating &c. v.; unsteady &c. (changeable) 149; unsteadfast[obs3],
fickle, without ballast; capricious &c. 608; volatile, frothy; light,
lightsome, light-minded; giddy; fast and loose.
weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c. 860; cowardly
&c. 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c. (soft) 324; unable to say
Adv. irresolutely &c. adj.; irresolved[obs3], irresolvedly[obs3]; in
faltering accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c. 314.
Int. "how happy could I be with either!" [Gay].
#606. Obstinacy. -- N. obstinateness &c. adj.; obstinacy, tenacity;
cussedness [U. S.]; perseverance &c. 604a; immovability; old school;
inflexibility &c. (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration[obs3]; dogged
resolution; resolution &c. 604; ruling passion; blind side.
self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy|, pervicacity[obs3];
bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry|, opiniativeness; fixed
idea &c. (prejudgment) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation, monomania;
mule; opinionist|, opinionatist[obs3], opiniator|, opinator|;
stickler, dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic.
V. be obstinate &c. adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of
facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's own
way &c. (will) 600; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; have the last word,
insist on having the last word.
die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out.
Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened;
inflexible &c. (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved;
inert &c. 172; unchangeable &c. 150; inexorable &c. (determined) 604;
mulish, obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.
dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced, unaffected.
willful, self-willed, perverse; resty[obs3], restive, restiff|;
pervicacious[obs3], wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong;
entete[Fr]; contumacious; crossgrained[obs3].
arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c. 481; creed-
bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff hearted;
hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious, impracticable,
inpersuasible[obs3]; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable[obs3];
incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c. 608.
Adv. obstinately &c. adj.
Phr. non possumus[Lat]; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien
<-- p. 187 -->
#607. Tergiversation. -- N. change of mind, change of intention,
change of purpose; afterthought.
tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody[obs3]; renunciation;
abjuration,abjurement[obs3]; defection &c. (relinquishment) 624; going over
&c. v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation[obs3]; withdrawal; disavowal &c.
(negation) 536; revocation, revokement[obs3]; reversal; repentance &c. 950-
coquetry; vacillation &c. 605; backsliding; volte-face[Fr].
turn coat, turn tippet|; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert;
proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U. S.], scab*, mugwump
[U. S.], recidivist.
time server, time pleaser[obs3]; timist|, Vicar of Bray, trimmer,
ambidexter[obs3]; weathercock &c. (changeable) 149; Janus.
V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose,
change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c. (relinquish) 624;
waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a pirouette; go
over from one side to another, pass from one side to another, change from
one side to another, skip from one side to another; go to the rightabout;
box the compass, shift one's ground, go upon another tack.
apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke;
rescind &c. (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come round
to an opinion; crawfish *[U. S.], crawl* [U. S.].
draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the leek;
swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of it; come
back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c. (repent) 950.
trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be on
the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds; nager
entre deux eaux[Fr]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see how the
Adj. changeful &c. 149; irresolute &c. 605; ductile, slippery as an
eel, trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving[obs3]; coquetting &c. v.
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron].
#608. Caprice. -- N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy,
whimsey[obs3], whimwham[obs3]; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot,
fad, vagary, prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade[Fr], wild-goose chase;
capriciousness &c. adj.; kink.
V. be capricious &c. adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into
one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold; play
fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque[Fr].
Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims
&c. n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical, crotchety,
kinky [U. S.], particular, humorsome[obs3], freakish, skittish, wanton,
wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c. 83; penny wise
and pound foolish; fickle &c. (irresolute) 605; frivolous, sleeveless,
Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason.
Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi[Lat]; the deuce is in him.
<-- p. 188 -->
#609. Choice. -- N. choice, option; discretion &c. (volition) 600;
preoption[obs3]; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix[Fr]; adoption,
cooptation[obs3]; novation[obs3]; decision &c. (judgment) 480.
election; political election (politics) 737a.
selection, excerption, gleaning, eclecticism; excerpta[obs3],
gleanings, cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c. (best) 650.
preference, prelation[obs3], opinion poll, survey; predilection &c.
V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present
the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote.
use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion,
one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for;
take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.
vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide.
settle; decide &c. (adjudge) 480; list &c. (will) 600; make up one's
mind &c. (resolve) 604.
select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean, winnow;
sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow
the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's way; indulge
set apart, mark out for; mark &c. 550.
prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c. (desire) 865; be
persuaded &c. 615.
take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a course;
pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with; take for
better or for worse.
Adj. optional; discretional &c. (voluntary) 600.
eclectic; choosing &c. v.; preferential; chosen &c. v.; choice &c.
Adv. optionally &c. adj.; at pleasure &c. (will) 600; either the one
or the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for
by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.
#609a. Absence of Choice. -- N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come
first served, random selection; necessity &c. 601; not a pin to choose &c.
(equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.
neutrality, indifference; indecision &c. (irresolution) 605;
coercion (compulsion) 744.
V. be neutral &c. adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not
vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; "make a
virtue of necessity" [Two Gentlemen].
Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c.
Adv. either &c. (choice) 609.
Phr. who cares? what difference does it make? "There's not a dime's
worth of difference between them." [George Wallace].
#610. Rejection. -- N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c.
V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c. (refuse) 764;
exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast.
repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the
dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs,
cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw
overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss overboard,
toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c. (deny) 536; discard &c.
(eject) 297, (have done with) 678.
Adj. rejected &c. v.; reject, rejectaneous|, rejectious|; not chosen
&c. 609, to be thought of, out of the question
Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536.
Phr. non haec in faedera[Lat].
#611. Predetermination. -- N. predestination, preordination,
premeditation, predeliberation[obs3], predetermination; foregone
conclusion, fait accompli[Fr]; parti pris[Fr]; resolve, propendency|;
intention &c. 620; project &c. 626; fate, foredoom, necessity.
V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert;
resolve beforehand, predesignate.
Adj. prepense[obs3], premeditated &c. v., predesignated,
predesigned[obs3]; advised, studied, designed, calculated; aforethought;
intended &c. 620; foregone.
well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered; cunning.
Adv. advisedly &c. adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things
considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c. 620.
#612. Impulse. -- N. impulse, sudden thought; impromptu,
improvisation; inspiration, flash, spurt.
improvisatore[obs3]; creature of impulse.
V. flash on the mind.
say what comes uppermost; improvise, extemporize.
Adj. extemporaneous, impulsive, indeliberate[obs3]; snap; improvised,
improvisate[obs3], improvisatory[obs3]; unpremeditated, unmeditated;
improvise; unprompted, unguided; natural, unguarded; spontaneous &c.
(voluntary) 600; instinctive &c. 601.
Adv. extempore, extemporaneously; offhand, impromptu, a
limproviste[Fr]; improviso[obs3]; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of
<-- p. 189 -->
#613. Habit. [includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence] --
N. habit, habitude; assuetude|, assuefaction|, wont; run, way.
common state of things, general state of things, natural state of
things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary run
of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten ground.
prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice;
prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode, fashion,
vogue; etiquette &c. (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry; conformity &c.
one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; laudator
rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism[obs3];
pipe clay; rut, groove.
cacoethes[Lat]; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit,
intrinsic habit &c.; addiction, trick.
training &c. (education) 537; seasoning, second nature,
acclimatization; knack &c.
V. be wont &c. adj.
fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c. (conform to) 82; tread the
beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten path, follow the
beaten; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; move in a rut, run on in a
groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the old jog trot way.
habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom, familiarize;
naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c. (educate) 537.
get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c. 539; cling to,
adhere to; repeat &c. 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into a
habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict oneself
to, take to, get into.
be habitual &c. adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take
root; gain upon one, grow upon one.
Adj. habitual; accustomary[obs3]; prescriptive, accustomed &c. v.; of
daily occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary[obs3]; wonted,
usual, general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden
variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular, trite,
commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established, stereotyped;
prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged, recognized,
accredited; of course, admitted, understood.
conformable. &c. 82; according to use, according to custom, according
to routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c. (genteel)
wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c. v.;
in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c. (skillful) 698; seasoned; imbued
with; devoted to, wedded to.
hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted[obs3], permanent,
inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c. (intrinsic) 5.
Adv. habitually &c. adj.; always &c. (uniformly) 16.
as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as the
sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito[Lat]; ex more.
as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c. adj.;
most often, most frequently.
Phr. cela s'entend[Fr]; abeunt studia in mores[Lat]; adeo in teneris
consuescere multum est[Lat]; consuetudo quasi altera natura [Lat][Cicero];
hoc erat in more majorum[Lat]; "How use doth breed a habit in a man!" [Two
Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis[Lat]; morent fecerat usus
#614. Desuetude. -- N. desuetude, disusage[obs3]; obsolescence, disuse
&c. 678; want of habit, want of practice; inusitation[obs3]; newness to;
infraction of usage &c. (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence[obs3]; "a
custom more honored in the breach than the observance" [Hamlet].
V. be -unaccustomed &c. adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit,
break off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through
a habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break off
a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through a
custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break off a
usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a usage,
infringe a usage; disuse &c. 678; wear off.
Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured[obs3],
unhabituated[obs3], untrained; new; green &c. (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed.
unusual &c. (unconformable) 83; nonobservant[obs3]; disused &c. 678.
<-- p. 190 -->
2. Causes of Volition
#615. Motive. -- N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action.
reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring,
primum mobile[Lat], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con,
reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee[Fr]; intention &c. 620.
inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet, magnetism,
magnetic force; allectation|, allective|; temptation, enticement,
agacerie[obs3], allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery; charm; spell
&c. 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction, seducement;
honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens forbidden fruit,
persuasibility[obs3], persuasibleness[obs3]; attractability[obs3];
impressibility, susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness;
tantalization[obs3]. influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse,
impulsion; incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c.
(excitation of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion;
encouragement, advocacy; exhortation; advice &c. 695; solicitation &c.
(request) 765; lobbyism; pull*.
incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus[obs3], rowel,
provocative, whet, dram.
bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring; bribery
and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus.
prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor[obs3]; instigator, firebrand,
incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist.
V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse
&c. n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon.
stimulate &c. (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse;
animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate; act upon,
work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the shoulder,
clap on the back, clap on the shoulder.
influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose, turn
the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have influence
over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise influence
over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn the head,
persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round to
one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over, come
over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.
tempt, seduce, overpersuade[obs3], entice, allure, captivate,
fascinate, bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure;
inveigle; tantalize; cajole &c. (deceive) 545.
tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver hook,
gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan, throw a sop
to, bait the hook.
enforce, force; impel &c. (push) 276; propel &c. 284; whip, lash,
goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound, hurry on; drag &c. 285; exhort;
advise &c. 695; call upon &c. press &c. (request) 765; advocate.
set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance.
be persuaded &c.; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c.
(consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent,.follow the
dictates of; act on principle.
Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory[obs3], persuasive,
persuasory[obs3], hortative, hortatory; protreptical|; inviting, tempting,
&c. v.; suasive, suasory[obs3]; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c.
(pleasing) 829; provocative &c. (exciting) 824.
induced &c. v.; disposed; persuadable &c. (docile) 602; spellbound;
instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c. v.; by.
Adv. because, therefore &c. (cause) 155; from this motive, from that
motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the sake
of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as.
for all the world; on principle.
Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae[Lat]; "temptation hath a music for
all ears" "to beguile many and be beguiled by one" [Willis][Othello].
#615a. Absence of Motive. -- N. absence of motive, aimlessness;
caprice &c. 608; chance &c. (absence of design) 621.
V. have no motive; scruple &c. (be unwilling) 603.
Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c.
Adv. out of mere caprice.
<-- p. 191 -->
#616. Dissuasion. -- N. dissuasion, dehortation[obs3], expostulation,
remonstrance; deprecation &c. 766.
discouragement, damper, wet blanket; disillusionment, disenchantment.
cohibition &c. (restraint) 751[obs3]; curb &c. (means of restraint)
752; check &c. (hindrance) 706.
reluctance &c. (unwillingness) 603; contraindication.
V. dissuade, dehort[obs3], cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate,
disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage,
dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c. (restrain) 751; render
averse &c. 603; repel; turn aside &c. (deviation) 279; wean from; act as a
drag &c. (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill, blunt, calm,
quiet, quench; deprecate &c. 766.
disenchant, disillusion, deflate, take down a peg, pop one's balloon,
prick one's balloon, burst one's bubble; disabuse (correction) 527a.
Adj. dissuading &c. v.; dissuasive; dehortatory[obs3],
expostulatory[obs3]; monitive|, monitory.
dissuaded &c. v.; admonitory; uninduced &c. (induce &c. 615);
unpersuadable &c. (obstinate) 606; averse &c. (unwilling) 603; repugnant
&c. (dislike) 867.
#617. [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.] Pretext. -- N.
pretext, pretense, pretension, plea|; allegation, advocation; ostensible
motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c.
(vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover.
loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off; way of
handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi[Lat]; stalking-horse, cheval
de bataille[Fr], cue.
pretense &c. (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes; blind;
moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame apology; tub to
a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift, white lie; special
pleading &c. (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c. (flattery) 933[obs3].
V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse
&c. (vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c. n.; make a
pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c. n.; take one's stand upon,
make capital out of, pretend &c. (lie) 544.
Adj. ostensibly &c. (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c.
Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of,
under the guise of.
3. Objects of Volition
#618. Good. -- N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c. 658;
greatest good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main
chance, summum bonum[Lat], common weal; "consummation devoutly to be
wished"; gain, boot; profit, harvest.
boon &c. (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of good
luck[Fr], piece of good fortune[Fr]; nuts, prize, windfall, godsend, waif,
good fortune &c. (prosperity) 734; happiness &c. 827.
[Source of good] goodness &c. 648; utility &c. 644; remedy &c. 662;
pleasure giving &c. 829.
Adj. commendable &c. 931; useful &c. 644; good &c., beneficial &c.
Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis[Fr]; all for
the best; to one's advantage &c. n.; in one's favor, in one's interest &c.
Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum[Lat].
#619. Evil. -- N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance;
machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.
blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation; mortal
blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus[Lat]; damage, loss &c. (deterioration)
disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.
disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c. (misfortune) 735; bad job,
devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c. (destruction)
162; adversity &c. 735.
mental suffering &c. 828. * demon &v[Evil spirit]. 980. bane &c.
663[Cause of evil]. badness &c. 649[Production of evil]; painfulness &c.
830; evil doer &c. 913.
outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice,
spoliation &c. 791; grievance, crying evil.
V. be in trouble &c. (adversity) 735.
Adj. disastrous, bad &c. 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.
Adv. amis[Fr], wrong, ill, to one's cost
Phr. "moving accidents by flood and field" [Othello].
<-- p. 192 -->
Section II. Prospective Volition
1. Conceptional Volition
#620. Intention. -- N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo
animo[Lat]; project &c. 626; undertaking &c. 676; predetermination &c. 611;
contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look out.
final cause; raison d'etre[Fr]; cui bono[Lat]; object, aim, end; "the
be all and the end all"; drift &c. (meaning) 516; tendency &c. 176;
destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye,
quintain[obs3][medeival]; prey, quarry, game.
decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled purpose;
ultimatum; resolution &c. 604; wish &c. 865; arriere pensee[Fr]; motive &c.
[Study of final causes] teleology.
V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor
a design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in-
petto; have an eye to.
bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at, aim
at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before oneself;
take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676; take into one's head; meditate,
contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c. 611; compass,
calculate; destine, destinate[obs3]; propose.
project &c. (plan) 626; have a mind to &c. (be willing) 602; desire
&c. 865; pursue &c. 622.
Adj. intended &c. v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate;
prepense &c. 611[obs3]; bound for; intending &c. v.; minded; bent upon &c.
(earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis[obs3]; in view, in
prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological
Adv. intentionally &c. adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly,
designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly; with
intent &c. n.; deliberately &c. (with premeditation) 611; with one's eyes
open, in cold blood.
for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to the
end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view of, in
contemplation of, on account of.
in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo[Lat]; to all intents and
Phr. "The road to hell is paved with good intentions" [Johnson];
sublimi feriam sidera vertice [Lat][Horace].
<-- p. 193 -->
#621. [Absence of purpose in the succession of events] Chance. 2 -- N.
chance &c. 156; lot, fate &c. (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c. (good)
speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random shot;
blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c. (uncertainty) 475;
fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer*; limit.
uncertainty; uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty
drawing lots; sortilegy[obs3], sortition|; sortes[obs3], sortes
Virgilianae[obs3]; rouge et noir[Fr], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo
[obs3][U.S.], craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup
tossing, heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting;
gambling; the turf.
gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; gambling
joint; totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box.
[person who takes chances] gambler, gamester; man of the turf;
V. chance &c. (hap) 156; stand a chance &c. (be possible) 470.
toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance, leave
to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents; tempt
fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it (attempt) 675; run
the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the chance, encounter the
risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of the die.
speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a lottery,
buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards.
risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet,
wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing.
Adj. fortuitous &c. 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not
meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c. 612; unforeseen,
uncontemplated, never thought of.
random, indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected; aimless,
driftless[obs3], designless[obs3], purposeless, causeless; without purpose.
possible &c. 470.
unforeseeable, unpredictable, chancy, risky, speculative, dicey.
Adv. randomly, by chance, fortuitously; unpredictably, unforeseeably;
casually &c. 156; unintentionally &c. adj.; unwittingly.
en passant[Fr], by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at random,
at a venture, at haphazard.
Phr. acierta errando[Lat]; dextro tempore[Lat]; "fearful concatenation
of circumstances" [D. Webster]; "fortuitous combination of circumstances"
[Dickens]; le jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir[Fr]; "the
happy combination of fortuitous circumstances" [Scott]; "the fortuitous or
casual concourse of atoms" [Bentley]; "God does not play dice with the
universe" [A. Einstein].
#622. [Purpose in action.] Pursuit -- N. pursuit; pursuing &c. v.;
prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c. (undertaking) 676; business &c. 625;
adventure &c. (essay) 675; quest &c. (search) 461; scramble, hue and cry,
game; hobby; still-hunt.
chase, hunt, battue[obs3], race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing;
venation, venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling, fishing,
pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari[Geogloc:India], sportsman, Nimrod;
hound &c. 366.
V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt
after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c. (do) 680; engage in &c.
(undertake) 676; set about &c. (begin) 66; endeavor &c. 675; court &c.
(request) 765 seek &c. (search) 461; aim at &c. (intention) 620; follow the
trail &c. (trace) 461; fish for &c. (experiment) 463; press on &c. (haste)
684; run a race &c. (velocity) 274.
chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels,
follow on the heels of, &c. (sequence) 281.
rush upon; rush headlong &c. (violence) 173 ride full tilt at, run
full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game.
tread a path; take a course, hold- a course; shape one's steps, direct
one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's way, elbow
one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride one's hobby.
Adj. pursuing &c. v.; in quest of &c. (inquiry) 461 in pursuit, in
full cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent.
Adv. in pursuance of &c. (intention) 620; after.
Int. tallyho! yoicks! soho[obs3]!
#623. [Absence of pursuit.] Avoidance. -- N. abstention, abstinence;
for bearance[obs3]; refraining &c. v.; inaction &c. 681; neutrality.
avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c. 893.
avolation|, flight; escape &c. 671; retreat &c. 287; recoil &c. 277;
departure &c. 293; rejection &c. 610.
shirker &c. v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate; maroon.
V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c. 681; maintain the
even tenor of one's way.
eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof keep
off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part in, have no
avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep one's
distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get out of
the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c. (oppose)
708; deny oneself.
shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c. 277; retire
&c. (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge, parry, make way
for, give place to.
beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels;
runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly, flee;
fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight; desert,
elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer off; break
away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away, make away from,
scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from, sheer away from;
slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out of, play truant, give
one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave, slope, decamp, flit, bolt,
abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulate [obs3][U.S.], cut one's stick,
walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels, make oneself scarce; escape
&c. 671; go away &c. (depart) 293; abandon &c. 624; reject &c. 610.
lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent, play
at hide and seek.
Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c. v.; neutral, shy of &c.
(unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild.
Adj. lest, in order to avoid.
Int. forbear! keep off, hands off! sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every
man for himself]; devil take the hindmost!
Phr. "things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme" [Paradise Lost].
<-- p. 194 -->
#624. Relinquishment. -- N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion,
defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam[obs3]; nolle
discontinuance &c. (cessation) 142; renunciation &c. (recantation)
607; abrogation &c. 756; resignation &c. (retirement) 757; desuetude &c.
614; cession &c. (of property) 782.
V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch;
go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of; leave,
quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c. (resign) 757.
renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c.
678; discard &c. 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of.
break off, leave off; desist; stop &c. (cease) 142; hold one's hand,
stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop.
throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up the
argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous question.
Adj. unpursued[obs3]; relinquished &c. v.; relinquishing &c. v.
Int. avast! &c. (stop) 142.
Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben[Ger]; entbehre gern was du
#625. Business. -- N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c.
622; what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case.
matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task, work,
job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care; duty &c. 926.
part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department, capacity,
sphere, orb, field, line; walk, walk of life; beat, round, routine; race,
office, place, post, chargeship[obs3], incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c.
vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art;
industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c. (commerce) 794.
exercise; work &c. (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c.
V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in;
employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern
oneself with; make it one's business &c. n.; undertake &c. 676; enter a
profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c. (do)
office, place, post, chargeship[obs3], incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c.
drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade, carry
on business, do business, transact business &c. n.; keep a shop; ply one's
task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the even tenor of
one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.
officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty; serve
the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of, perform the
duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill an office, fill a
place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a place, hold a situation.
be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied with,
be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's hands, have
on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full &c. (activity)
be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass through
Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy
&c. (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on
foot, on the anvil; going on; acting.
Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work;
professionally &c. Adj.
Phr. "a business with an income at its heels" [Cowper]; amoto
quaeramus seria ludo [Lat][Horace]; par negotiis neque supra
<-- p. 195 -->
#626. Plan. -- N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal,
proposition, suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c. (provision)
673; deep-laid plan &c. (premeditated) 611;
system &c. (order) 58; organization &c. (arrangement) 60; germ &c.
sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche[Fr], brouillon[Fr];
rough cast, rough draft, draught copy; copy; proof, revise.
drawing, scheme, schematic, graphic, chart, flow chart
forecast, program(me), prospectus; carte du pays[Fr]; card; bill,
protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c. (food) 298;
base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U. S.], ticket [U. S.].
role; policy &c. (line of conduct) 692.
contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice, device;
pipelaying [U. S.]; stratagem &c. (cunning) 702; trick &c. (deception) 545;
alternative, loophole; shift &c. (substitute) 147; last shift &c.
measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump card,
court card; cheval de bataille[Fr], great gun; coup, coup d'etat[Fr];
clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good stroke; bright
thought, bright idea.
intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot[obs3], machination;
subplot, underplot[obs3], counterplot.
schemer, schemist[obs3], schematist|; strategist, machinator;
projector, artist, promoter, designer &c. v.; conspirator; intrigant &c.
V. plan,,scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch;
devise, invent &c. (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c. 515; spring a
project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay out, map
out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course; predetermine
&c. 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c. 673; hatch, hatch a
plot concoct; take steps, take measures.
cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c. 60; digest, mature.
plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train; intrigue
&c. (cunning) 702.
Adj. planned &c. v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c. v.;
prepared, in course of preparation &c. 673; under consideration; on the
tapis[obs3], on the carpet, on the floor.
#627. Method. [Path.] -- N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form,
mode, fashion, tone, guise; modus operandi, MO; procedure &c. (line of
path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory,
orbit, track, beat, tack.
steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile;
bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank, gangway;
drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c. 260.
door; gateway &c. (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of
access, approach, adit[obs3]; artery, lane, alley, aisle, lobby, corridor;
back-door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way; vennel[obs3].
roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway; turnpike,
freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's highway, Queen's
highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle road, bridle track,
bridle path; walk, trottoir[obs3], footpath, pavement, flags, sidewalk;
crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c. (mid-course) 628;
carrefour[obs3]; private road, occupation road; highways and byways;
railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway; canal &c.
(conduit) 350; street &c. (abode) 189; speedway.
adv. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this way, after
one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c. (instrumentality)
631; by way of; via; in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; on the high road to.
Phr. hae tibi erunt artes[Lat].
<-- p. 196 -->
#628. Mid-course. -- N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c. 29 middle
&c. 68; juste milieu[Fr], mezzo termine[It], golden mean,
straight &c. (direct) 278 straight course, straight path; short cut,
cross cut; great circle sailing.
neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.
V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even
course, go straight &c. (direct) 278.
go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.
Adj. straight &c. (direct) 278.
Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat].
#629. Circuit. -- N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour,
circumbendibus, ambages[obs3], loop; winding &c. (circuition) 311[obs3];
zigzag &c. (deviation) 279.
V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a
detour; meander &c. (deviate) 279.
lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a cherry.
Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c. (deviating) 279;
Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from
pillar to post.
#630. Requirement. -- N. requirement, need, wants, necessities;
necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency, pinch, sine qua non,
matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.
needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.
requisition &c. (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand, call
charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.
desideratum &c. (desire) 865; want &c. (deficiency) 640.
V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without,
not be able to dispense with; prerequire[obs3].
render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for, put
in requisition; make a requisition &c. (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.
stand in need of; lack &c. 640; desiderate[obs3]; desire &c. 865; be
necessary &c. Adj.
Adj. required &c. v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative,
essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in request.
urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.
in want of; destitute of &c. 640.
Adv. ex necessitate rei &c. (necessarily) 601[Lat]; of necessity.
Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be
dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; necessitas
non habet legem[Lat]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te [Lat][Martial].
2. Subservience to Ends
#631. Instrumentality. -- N. instrumentality; aid &c. 707;
subservience, subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium,
intermedium[obs3], vehicle, hand; agency &c. 170.
minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr],
obstetrician; gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone.
opener &c. 260; key; master key, passkey, latchkey; "open sesame";
passport, passe-partout, safe-conduct, password.
instrument &c. 633; expedient &c. (plan) 626; means &c. 632.
V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c. adj.;
pander to; officiate; tend.
Adj. instrumental; useful &c. 644; ministerial, subservient,
mediatorial[obs3]; intermediate, intervening; conducive.
Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c.
170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c. n.;
along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c. 632; by the aid of, with
the aid of &c. (assistance) 707.
<-- p. 197 -->
per fas et nefas[Lat], by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow or
other; by hook or by crook.
#632. Means. -- N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means;
capital &c. (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c. 636; provision &c.
637; a shot in the locker; appliances &c. (machinery) 633; means and
appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c. (measures) 626; two
strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c. (safety) 666; aid &c. 707; medium
V. find means, have means, possess means &c. n.
Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical &c. 633.
Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by
some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal.
how &c. (in what manner) 627; through &c. (by the instrumentality of)
631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c. (assistance) 707; by the agency of
#633. Instrument. -- N. machinery, mechanism, engineering.
instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine, lathe,
gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine.
gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances; plant,
materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde[obs3];
equipment, equipmentage[obs3]; appointments, furniture, upholstery;
chattels; paraphernalia &c. (belongings) 780.
mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow,
crowbar; handspike[obs3], gavelock[obs3], jemmy[obs3], jimmy, arm, limb,
wing; oar, paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels
within wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c. (lift) 307;
wheel &c. (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring;
can hook, glut, heald[obs3], heddle[obs3], jenny, parbuckle[obs3],
sprag[obs3], water wheel.
handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller, helm,
treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker.
hammer &c. (impulse) 276; edge tool &c. (cut) 253; borer &c. 262;
vice, teeth, &c. (hold) 781; nail, rope &c. (join) 45; peg &c. (hang) 214;
support &c. 215; spoon &c. (vehicle) 272; arms &c. 727; oar &c.
(navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper[obs3], snowplow, tenpenny[obs3],
Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical, machinal[obs3]; brachial[Med].
#634. Substitute. -- N. substitute &c. 147; deputy &c. 759;
#635. Materials. -- N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple;
adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake; shingle,
bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c. 384; compo,
composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore, timber.
materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff pabulum
&c. (food) 298; ammunition &c. (arms) 727; contingents; relay,
reinforcement, reenforcement[obs3]; baggage &c. (personal property) 780;
means &c. 632; calico, cambric, cashmere.
Adj. raw &c. (unprepared) 674; wooden &c. n.; adobe.
#636. Store. -- N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring;
fount, fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow.
stock in trade, supply; heap &c. (collection) 72; treasure; reserve,
corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne bouche[Fr].
crop, harvest, mow, vintage.
store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c. (provision)
storehouse, storeroom, storecloset[obs3]; depository, depot, cache,
repository, reservatory[obs3], repertory; repertorium[obs3];
promptuary[obs3], warehouse, entrepot[Fr], magazine; buttery, larder,
spence[obs3]; garner, granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault,
stillroom[obs3]; thesaurus; bank &c. (treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock;
gallery, museum, conservatory; menagery[obs3], menagerie.
<-- p. 198 -->
reservoir, cistern, aljibar[obs3], tank, pond, mill pond;
budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c. (receptacle) 191.
conservation; storing &c. v.; storage.
V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart;
store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up, save
up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.
deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c. 72; lay in
Adj.; keep, file [papers]; lay in &c. (provide) 637; preserve &c. 670.
Adj. stored &c. v.; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare,
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].
#637. Provision. -- N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill;
subvention &c. (aid) 707; resources &c. (means) 632; groceries, grocery.
providing &c. v.; purveyance; reinforcement, reenforcement[obs3];
provender &c. (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.
caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple[obs3], feeder,
batman, victualer, grocer, comprador[Sp], restaurateur; jackal, pelican;
sutler &c. (merchant) 797[obs3].
grocery shop [U. S.], grocery store.
V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a
stock, lay in a store.
supply, suppeditate|; furnish; find, find one in; arm.
cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock, stock
with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.
have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot, keep
on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c. 636; provide against a rainy day
&c. (economy) 817.
#638. Waste. -- N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion
&c. 73; ebb; leakage &c. (exudation) 295; loss &c. 776; wear and tear;
waste; prodigality &c. 818; misuse &c. 679; wasting &c. v.; rubbish &c.
(useless) 645. mountain in labor.
V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish;
spill, drain, empty; disperse &c. 73.
cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter
away; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c. 818.
"waste its sweetness on the desert air" [Gray]; cast one's bread
upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to crack a
nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor in vain &c.
(useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a sieve.
leak &c. (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry up.
Adj. wasted &c. v.; at a low ebb.
wasteful &c. (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish.
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la
chandelle[Fr]; "idly busy rolls their world away" [Goldsmith].
#639. Sufficiency. -- N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal,
satisfaction, competence; no less; quantum sufficit[Lat], Q.S..
mediocrity &c. (average) 29.
fill; fullness &c. (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance;
copiousness &c. Adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure;
"good measure pressed down and running, over." luxuriance &c. (fertility)
168; affluence &c. (wealth) 803; fat of the land; "a land flowing with milk
and honey"; cornucopia; horn of plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c.
outpouring; flood &c. (great quantity) 31; tide &c. (river) 348;
repletion &c. (redundancy) 641; satiety &c. 869.
V. be sufficient &c. Adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster;
have enough &c. n.; eat. one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill;
roll in, swim in; wallow in &c. (superabundance) 641; wanton.
abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour, pour
in; swarm; bristle with; superabound.
render sufficient &c. Adj.; replenish &c. (fill) 52.
Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate,
competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible.
measured; moderate &c. (temperate) 953.
full.&c. (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous; plenty as
blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c. v.; replete, enough and to
spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-provided; liberal;
unstinted, unstinting; stintless[obs3]; without stint; unsparing,
unmeasured; lavish &c. 641; wholesale.
rich; luxuriant &c. (fertile) 168; affluent &c. (wealthy) 803;
wantless[obs3]; big with &c. (pregnant) 161.
unexhausted[obs3], unwasted[obs3]; exhaustless, inexhaustible.
Adv. sufficiently, amply &c. Adj.; full; in abundance &c. n. with no
sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint.
Phr. "cut and come again" [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug[Ger].
#640. Insufficiency. -- N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness;
incompetence &c. (impotence) 158; deficiency &c. (incompleteness) 53;
imperfection &c. 651; shortcoming &c. 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c.
(smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.
scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition,
starvation, famine, drought.
dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half rations;
emptiness, poorness &c. Adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb
tide; low water; "a beggarly account of empty boxes" [Romeo and Jul.];
indigence &c. 804; insolvency &c. (nonpayment) 808.
V. be insufficient &c. Adj.; not suffice &c. 639; come short of &c.
304 run dry.
want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c. (poor) 804, live from
hand to mouth.
render insufficient &c. Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c.
(waste) 638; stint &c. (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance.
do insufficiently &c. adv.; scotch the snake.
Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c. 32; not enough &c. 639;
unequal to; incompetent &c. (impotent) 158; "weighed in the balance and
found wanting"; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460; deficient &c. (incomplete)
53; wanting, &c. v.; imperfect &c. 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill-
slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of, destitute
of, devoid of, bereft of &c. 789; denuded of; dry, drained.
unprovided, unsupplied[obs3], unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed[obs3];
unstored[obs3], untreasured[obs3]; empty-handed.
meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved,
starving; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune.
scant &c. (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love or
money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c. 819; at the end of
one's tether; without resources &c. 632; in want &c. (poor) 804; in debt
Adv. insufficiently &c. Adj.; in default of, for want of; failing.
Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat][Horace].
<-- p. 199 -->
#641. Redundancy. -- N. redundancy, redundance[obs3]; too much, too
many; superabundance, superfluity, superfluence|, saturation;
nimiety[obs3], transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c.
(plenty) 639; repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque[Lat],
lion's share; more than enough &c. 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion,
load, surfeit, sickener[obs3]; turgescence &c. (expansion) 194[obs3];
overdose, overmeasure[obs3], oversupply, overflow; inundation &c. (water)
accumulation &c. (store) 636; heap &c. 72; drug, drug in the market;
glut; crowd; burden.
excess; surplus, overplus[obs3]; epact[obs3]; margin; remainder &c.
40; duplicate; surplusage[obs3], expletive; work of supererogation; bonus,
luxury; intemperance &c. 954; extravagance &c. (prodigality) 818;
pleonasm &c. (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire; embarras
V. superabound, overabound[obs3]; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at
every turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow
over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay,
overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo, overwhelm,
overshoot the mark &c. (go beyond) 303; surcharge, supersaturate, gorge,
glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge, flood; drug, drug the market;
<-- p. 200 -->
choke, cloy, accloy[obs3], suffocate; pile up, lay on thick;
impregnate with; lavish &c. (squander) 818.
send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to
Athens[obs3]; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare
docere[Lat]; kill the slain, "gild refined gold", "gild the lily", butter
one's bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to
crack a nut &c. (waste) 638.
exaggerate &c. 549; wallow in roll in &c. (plenty) 639 remain on one's
hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging.
Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate,
superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal &c.
818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c. v.;
supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste,
crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to burst;
dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c. 194.
superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous|, uncalled for, to
spare, in excess; over and above &c. (remainder) 40; de trop[Fr];
adscititious &c. (additional) 37; supernumerary &c. (reserve) 636; on one's
hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort[Fr].
Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without
measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with . . . to spare; over head and
ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c.
(transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat].
Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortuna multis dat nimium nulli
#642. Importance. -- N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence,
consideration, mark, materialness.
import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest.
greatness &c. 31; superiority &c. 33; notability &c. (repute) 873;
weight &c. (influence) 175; value &c. (goodness) 648; usefulness &c. 644.
gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter;
pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death.
memorabilia, notabilia[obs3], great doings; red-letter day.
great thing, great point; main chance, "the be all and the end all"
[Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c. (essence) 5; sum and
substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part,
prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath of
one's nostrils &c. (life) 359;cream, salt, core, kernel, heart, nucleus;
keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c. (device) 626; salient
top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna[Sp], chief; triton among the
minnows; "it" [U.S.].
V. be important &c. adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify,
matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c. (influence) 175; make a figure
&c. (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead the way,
take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the shade; lie at the
root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of notice, be worthy of
regard, be worthy of consideration.
attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c.
n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c. 550; mark with
a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print in
italics, print in capitals, print in large letters, put in large type, put
in letters. of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.
make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a piece
of work about[Fr], make much ado about; make much ado of, make much of.
Adj. important; of importance &c. n.; momentous, material; to the
point; not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at;
egregious; weighty &c. (influential) 175; of note &c. (repute) 873;
notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable; unforgettable;
worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be forgotten; stirring,
grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive, commanding,
urgent, pressing, critical, instant.
paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal, chief,
main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost, overruling; of
vital &c. importance.
in the front rank, first-rate; superior &c. 33; considerable &c.
(great) 31; marked &c. v.; rare &c. 137.
significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti[Lat].
Adv. materially &c. adj.; in the main; above all,
Phr. expende Hannibalem![Lat] [Juvenal].
#643. Unimportance. -- N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness,
triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c. Adj.; poverty; smallness
&c. 32; vanity &c. (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c. 866; no
nothing, nothing to signify,, nothing worth speaking of, nothing
particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no
great matter, trifling matter &c. Adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly
anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great
shakes, peu de chose[Fr]; child's play, kinderspiel.
toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble,
trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knickknack, whim-wham, trifle, "trifles
light as air"; yankee notions [U. S.].
trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras[obs3], frippery; "leather or
prunello"; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c.
(inutility) 645; scum &c. (dirt) 653.
joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c. (unmeaning) 517;
fiddlestick[obs3], fiddlestick end[obs3]; pack of nonsense, mere farce.
straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny, farthing,
brass farthing, doit[obs3], peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff, old son;
cent, mill, picayune, pistareen[obs3], red cent [U.S.].
<-- p. 201 -->
minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance,
feather in the scale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill.
nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus[Lat]; flash in the pan &c.
(impotence) 158; much ado about nothing &c. (overestimation) 482.
V. be unimportant &c. Adj.; not matter &c. 642; go for nothing, matter
nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not
matter a straw &c. n.
make light of &c. (underestimate) 483; catch at straws &c.
Adj. unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account,
of little importance, of no importance &c. 642; immaterial; unessential,
subordinate &c. (inferior) 34; mediocre &c. (average) 29; passable,
fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common;
ordinary &c. (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant,
trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle;
puerile &c. (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c. 160; powerless &c. 158;
frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble[obs3], inane,
ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin[obs3]; fiddle-faddle, fingle-
fangle[obs3], namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water.
poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c. (contempt) 930; sorry, mean,
meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel[obs3], weedy,
niggardly, scurvy, putid[obs3], beggarly, worthless, twopennyhalfpenny,
cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-horse [U. S.]. not worth
the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not worth speaking of,
not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a straw &c. n.;1 beneath
notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard, unworthy of regard, beneath
consideration, unworthy of consideration; de lana caprina[It][obs3]; vain
&c. (useless) 645.
Adv. slightly &c. adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably. for
aught one cares.
Int. no matter! pish! tush! tut! pshaw! pugh! pooh, pooh-pooh! fudge!
bosh! humbug! fiddlestick[obs3], fiddlestick end[obs3]! fiddlededee! never
mind! n'importe[Fr]! what signifies it, what boots it, what of it, what of
that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for' stuff and nonsense, stuff!
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la
chandelle[Fr]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no
consequence, it is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem[Lat];
tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].
<-- p. 202 -->
#644. Utility. -- N. utility; usefulness &c. adj.; efficacy,
efficiency, adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c. (aid) 707;
applicability &c. adj.; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631; function
&c. (business) 625; value; worth &c. (goodness) 648; money's worth;
productiveness &c. 168; cui bono &c. (intention) 620[Lat]; utilization &c.
(use) 677 step in the right direction.
common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest; utilitarianism
&c. (philanthropy) 910.
V. be useful &c. adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c. (be instrumental to)
631; conduce &c. (tend) 176; answer, serve one's turn, answer a purpose,
serve a purpose.
act a part &c. (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a function
&c.; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's service;
bestead[obs3], stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c. 707.
bear fruit &c. (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit,
remunerate; benefit &c. (do good) 648.
find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit of
&c. (be better for) 658. render useful &c. (use) 677.
Adj. useful; of use &c. n.; serviceable, proficuous|, good for;
subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.; conducive &c. (tending) 176;
subsidiary &c. (helping) 707.
advantageous &c. (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful, remunerative,
worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c. (productive) 168.
adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient &c.
applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible; commodious,
adaptable; of all work.
Adv. usefully &c. adj.; pro bono publico[Lat].
<-- p. 203 -->
#645. Inutility. -- N. inutility; uselessness &c. adj.;
inefficacy[obs3], futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience[obs3];
inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; inefficiency.&c. (incompetence) 158;
unskillfulness &c. 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c.(unproductiveness).
169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus; lost trouble, lost
labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild goose chase, mere farce.
tautology &c. (repetition) 104; supererogation &c. (redundancy) 641.
vanitas vanitatum[Lat], vanity, inanity, worthlessness,
nugacity[obs3]; triviality &c. (unimportance) 643.
caput mortuum[Lat][obs3], waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool.
litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes; button
top; shoddy; rags, orts[obs3], trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings,
offscourings[obs3], waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings;
broken meat; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust hole;
fruges consumere natus &c. (drone) 683[Lat][Horace].
V. be useless &c. Adj.; go a begging &c. (redundant) 641; fail &c.
seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain
efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash the
waves, battre l'eau avec un baton[Fr], donner un coup d'epee dans
l'eau[Fr], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty well,
sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the winds;
whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre contre des
moulins[Fr]; lock the stable door when the steed is stolen, lock the barn
door after the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135; hold a farthing candle
to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c. (waste) 638; carry coals to
Newcastle &c. (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor white &c. (impossible)
render useless &c. adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify,
disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c. (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the wings;
put out of gear.
Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless;
inoperative &c. 158; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; inservient|,
unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c. (impotent) 158; of no avail &c. (use)
644; ineffectual &c. (failure) 732; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699;
"stale, flat and unprofitable"; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641;
dispensable; thrown away &c. (wasted) 638; abortive &c. (immature) 674.
worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c.
(trifling) 643 dear at any price.
vain, empty, inane; gainless[obs3], profitless, fruitless;
unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c. 169; hors de
combat[Fr]; effete, past work &c. (impaired) 659; obsolete &c. (old) 124;
fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not worth
having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled for;
Adv. uselessly &c. adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little
or no purpose.
Int. cui bono?[Lat]; what's the good!
Phr. actum ne agas[Lat][obs3]; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de
foin[obs3][Fr]; tanto buon che val niente[It].
#646. [Specific subservience.] Expedience. -- N. expedience,
expediency; desirableness, desirability &c. adj.; fitness &c. (agreement)
23; utility &c. 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage.
high time &c. (occasion) 134.
V. be expedient &c. Adj.; suit &c. (agree) 23; befit; suit the time,
befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion,
befit the occasion.
conform &c. 82.
Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth
while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming;
befitting &c. v.; opportune &c. (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c.
(accordant) 23; applicable &c. (useful) 644.
Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c. adj.
Phr. operae pretium est[Lat].
#647. Inexpedience. -- N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness,
undesirability &c. Adj.; discommodity[obs3], impropriety; unfitness &c.
(disagreement) 24; inutility &c. 645; disadvantage.
V. be inexpedient &c. Adj.; come amiss &c. (disagree) 24; embarrass
&c. (hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle.
Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable;
objectionable; inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious,
discommodious[obs3]; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c.
ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c.,
unsubservient &c. (useless) 645; inopportune &c. (unseasonable) 135; out of
place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly.
clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy,
hulky[obs3]; unmanageable &c. (impracticable) 704; impedient &c. (in the
unnecessary &c. (redundant) 641.
Phr. it will never do.
#648. [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.] Goodness. -- N.
goodness &c. adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c. 944; value, worth, price.
super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c. 33; perfection &c.
650; coup de maitre[Fr]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre[Fr], prime, flower,
cream, elite, pick, A1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la creme, flower of
the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth; champion; prodigy.
tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel,
pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis[Lat], one
in a thousand.
beneficence &c. 906; good man &c. 948.
V. be beneficial &c. Adj.; produce good, do good &c. 618; profit &c.
(be of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c. 618.
be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of.
produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation; improve
do no harm, break no bones.
be good &c. adj.; excel, transcend &c. (be superior) 33; bear away the
stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination.
challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival.
Adj. harmless, hurtless[obs3]; unobnoxious[obs3], innocuous, innocent,
beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c. (useful) 644;
advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c. (healthful) 656.
favorable; propitious &c. (hope-giving) 858; fair.
good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c. 33; above par;
nice, fine; genuine &c. (true) 494.
best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless;
unparagoned[obs3], unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superlatively &c. 33;
good; bully*, crackajack*[obs3], giltedged; superfine,
superexcellent[obs3]; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high-
wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal;
standard &c. (perfect) 650; inimitable.
admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c. (approve) 931; pleasing &c.
829; couleur de rose[Fr], precious, of great price; costly &c. (dear) 814;
worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless, invaluable,
inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.
tolerable &c. (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable,
unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy.
in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c. (perfect) 650.
Adv. beneficially &c. adj.; well &c. 618.
Phr. "Jewels five words long" [Tennyson]; "long may such goodness
live!" [Rogers]; "the luxury of doing good" [Goldsmith].
<-- p. 204 -->
#649. [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.] Badness. -- N.
hurtfulness &c. Adj[obs3].; virulence.
evil doer &c. 913; bane &c. 663; plague spot &c. (insalubrity) 657;
evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the
closet; amari aliquid[Lat][obs3], thorn in the side.
malignity; malevolence &c. 907; tender mercies [ironically].
ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression, persecution,
outrage; misusage &c. 679; injury &c. (damage) 659; knockout drops [U. S.].
badness &c. adj.; peccancy[obs3], abomination; painfulness &c. 830;
pestilence &c. (disease) 655; guilt &c. 947; depravity &c. 945.
V. be hurtful &c. adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work
evil, do evil &c. 619; damnify[obs3], endamage[obs3], hurt, harm; injure
&c. (damage) 659; pain &c. 830.
wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon, bear
hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on; victimize; run
down; molest &c. 830.
maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch, maul;
smite &c. (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief; stab, pierce,
do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble.
destroy &c. 162.
Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful[obs3], baneful, baleful; injurious,
deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of
mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome;
prejudicial; disserviceable[obs3], disadvantageous; wide-wasting.
unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous.
oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c. (malevolent) 907.
corrupting &c. (corrupt &c. 659); virulent, venomous, envenomed,
corrosive; poisonous &c. (morbific) 657[obs3]; deadly &c. (killing) 361;
destructive &c. (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c. 859.
bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid, horrible;
dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the core.
vile, base, villainous; mean &c. (paltry) 643; injured &c.
deteriorated &c. 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable, indifferent; below par
&c. (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad,
grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c. (painful)
evil, wrong; depraved &c. 945; shocking; reprehensible &c.
(disapprove) 932. hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable,
execrable, cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal;
diabolic &c. (malevolent) 907.
unadvisable &c. (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645;
incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c. (hopeless) 859.
Adv. badly &c. Adj.; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe
Phr. bad is the best; the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto
cresco [Lat]; "wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged" [Wordsworth].
#650. Perfection. -- N. perfection; perfectness &c. adj.;
indefectibility[obs3]; impeccancy[obs3], impeccability.
pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of
perfection; ne plus ultra[Lat]; summit &c. 210.
cygne noir[Fr]; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor.
model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very
masterpiece, superexcellence &c. (goodness) 648[obs3]; transcendence
&c. (superiority) 33.
V. be perfect &c. adj.; transcend &c. (be supreme) 33.
bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &,,c. 729; put
in trim &c. (prepare) 673; maturate.
Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective[obs3], indeficient[obs3],
indefectible; immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c.
651; unblemished, uninjured &c. 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect
condition; scathless[obs3], intact, harmless; seaworthy &c. (safe) 644;
right as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat][Horace];
consummate &c. (complete) 52; finished &c. 729.
best &c. (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned[obs3],
unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c.
(approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche[Fr].
adv. to perfection; perfectly &c. adj.; ad unguem[Lat]; clean, - as a
phr. "let us go on unto perfection" [ Hebrews vi, 1]; "the
perfection of art is to conceal art" [Quintilian].
<-- p. 205 -->
#651. Imperfection. -- N. imperfection; imperfectness &c. Adj.;
deficiency; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c. (badness)
649[obs3]; immaturity &c. 674.
fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c. (break) 70; gap &c.
198; twist &c. 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat;
blemish &c. 848; weakness &c. 160; half blood; shortcoming &c. 304;
drawback; seamy side.
mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of;
V. be imperfect &c. adj.; have a defect &c. n.; lie under a
disadvantage; spring a leak.
not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c. 304.
Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c. 650; deficient, defective; faulty,
unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung; warped
&c. (distort) 243; lame; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659; peccant &c. (bad)
649; frail &c. (weak) 160; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; crude &c.
(unprepared) 674; incomplete &c. 53; found wanting; below par; short-
handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below its full
indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c. 29; so-so;
coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well, pretty
good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well enough,
adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable[obs3],
unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.
secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.].
Adv. almost &c.; to a limited extent, rather &c. 32; pretty,
moderately, passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough.
Phr. surgit amari aliquid[Lat].
#652. Cleanness. -- N. cleanness, cleanliness &c. adj.; purity;
cleaning &c. v.; purification, defecation &c. v.; purgation,
lustration[obs3]; detersion[obs3], abstersion[obs3]; epuration[obs3],
mundation|; ablution, lavation[obs3], colature|; disinfection &c. v.;
lavatory, laundry, washhouse[obs3]; washerwoman, laundress,
dhobi[obs3], laundryman, washerman[obs3]; scavenger, dustman[obs3], sweep;
brush[Local U. S.]; broom, besom[obs3], mop, rake, shovel, sieve,
riddle, screen, filter; blotter.
napkin, cloth, maukin|, malkin|, handkerchief, towel, sudary[obs3];
doyley[obs3], doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab.
wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c. v.;
disinfectant; aperient[obs3]; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin[obs3];
bleaching powder, chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent[obs3],
V. be clean, render clean &c. Adj.
clean, cleanse; mundify|, rinse, wring, flush, full, wipe, mop,
sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up.
wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge|, deterge[obs3]; decrassify[obs3];
clear, purify; depurate[obs3], despumate[obs3], defecate; purge, expurgate,
elutriate[Chem], lixiviate[obs3], edulcorate[obs3], clarify, refine, rack;
filter, filtrate; drain, strain.
disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate,
sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep.
rout out, clear out, sweep out &c.; make a clean sweep of.
Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculate; spotless, stainless, taintless;
trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied,
untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut.
neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat in
pattens; cleaned &c. v.; kempt[obs3].
abstergent[obs3], cathartic, cleansing, purifying.
Adv. neatly &c. adj.; clean as a whistle.
<-- p. 206 -->
#653. Uncleanness. -- N. uncleanness &c. Adj.; impurity;
immundity[obs3], immundicity[obs3]; impurity &c. 961[of mind].
defilement, contamination &c. v.; defoedation|; soilure[obs3],
soiliness|; abomination; leaven; taint, tainture|; fetor &c. 401[obs3].
decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew, dry rot,
slovenry[obs3]; slovenliness &c. Adj. squalor.
dowdy, drab, slut, malkin[obs3], slattern, sloven, slammerkin|,
slammock[obs3], slummock[obs3], scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark[obs3], dust-
man, sweep; beast.
dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge,
smut, grit, grime, raff[obs3]; sossle[obs3], sozzle[obs3].
sordes[obs3], dregs, grounds, lees; argol[obs3]; sediment, settlement
heeltap[obs3]; dross, drossiness[obs3]; mother|, precipitate, scoriae,
ashes, cinders. recrement[obs3], slag; scum, froth.
hogwash; ditchwater[obs3], dishwater, bilgewater[obs3]; rinsings,
cheeseparings; sweepings &c. (useless refuse) 645; offscourings[obs3],
outscourings[obs3]; off scum; caput mortuum[Lat][obs3], residuum, sprue,
fecula[Lat], clinker, draff[obs3]; scurf, scurfiness[obs3]; exuviae[Lat],
morphea; fur, furfur[obs3]; dandruff, tartar.
riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch[obs3].
mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh,
sposh [obs3][U. S.].
spawn, offal, gurry [obs3][U. S.]; lientery[obs3]; garbage, carrion;
excreta &c. 299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration,
lienteria[obs3]; faeces, feces, excrement, ordure, dung, crap[vulgar],
shit[vulgar]; sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost.
dunghill, colluvies[obs3], mixen[obs3], midden, bog, laystall[obs3],
sink, privy, jakes; toilet, john, head; cess[obs3], cesspool; sump, sough,
cloaca, latrines, drain, sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole.
sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable[obs3], sink of corruption; slum,
V. be unclean, become unclean &c. Adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester,
rankle, reek; stink &c. 401; mold, molder; go bad &c. adj.
render unclean &c. adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge,
smutch[obs3], soil, smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch;
begrease[obs3]; dabble, drabble[obs3], draggle, daggle[obs3]; spatter,
slubber; besmear &c., bemire, beslime[obs3], begrime, befoul; splash,
stain, distain[obs3], maculate, sully, pollute, defile, debase,
contaminate, taint, leaven; corrupt &c. (injure) 659; cover with dust &c.
n.; drabble in the mud[obs3]; roil.
wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber[obs3].
Adj. dirty, filthy, grimy; unclean, impure; soiled &c. v.; not to be
handled with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy[obs3], smutty, sooty, smoky; thick,
turbid, dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.].
slovenly, untidy, messy, uncleanly.
[of people] unkempt, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed; uncombed.
unscoured[obs3], unswept[obs3], unwiped[obs3], unwashed, unstrained,
unpurified[obs3]; squalid; lutose[obs3], slammocky[obs3], slummocky[obs3],
nasty, coarse, foul, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky,
reechy[obs3]; fetid &c. 401.
[of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty,
moth-eaten, mucid[obs3], rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral[obs3],
lentiginous[obs3], touched, fusty, effete, reasty[obs3], rotten, corrupt,
tainted, high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent,
putrefied; saprogenic, saprogenous[obs3]; purulent, carious, peccant;
fecal, feculent; stercoraceous[obs3], excrementitious[obs3]; scurfy,
scurvy, impetiginous[obs3]; gory, bloody; rotting &c. v.; rotten as a pear,
rotten as cheese.
crapulous &c. (intemperate) 954[obs3]; gross &c. (impure in mind) 961;
Phr. "they that touch pitch will be defiled" [Much Ado About
<-- p. 207 -->
#654. Health. -- N. health, sanity; soundness &c. adj.; vigor; good
health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health;
bloom. mens sana in corpore sano[Lat]; Hygeia[obs3]; incorruption,
incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health;
eupepsia[obs3]; euphoria, euphory[obs3]; St. Anthony's fire[obs3].
V. be in health &c. adj. bloom, flourish.
keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good health,
enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health.
return to health; recover &c. 660; get better &c. (improve) 658; take
a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to health; cure
&c. (restore) 660; tinker.
Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c. n.; well, sound, hearty, hale,
fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave, robust,
unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed[obs3], unmarred, untainted; sound of
wind and limb, safe and sound.
on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a daisy,
fresh as a rose, fresh as April[obs3]; hearty as a buck; in fine feather,
in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish[obs3],
tolerably well, as well as can be expected.
sanitary &c. (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c. (remedial) 662[obs3].
Phr. "health that snuffs the morning air" [Grainger]; non est vivere
sed valere vita [Lat][Martial].
#655. Disease. -- N. disease; illness, sickness &c. adj.; ailing &c.
"all the ills that flesh is heir to" [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity|;
infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady; distemper,
visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit.
delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy[obs3]; cachexia[Med],
atrophy, marasmus[obs3]; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c. (deterioration)
659; decline, consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration.
taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity[obs3], infestation;
epidemic, pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence, pox.
sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c. (swelling) 250;
carbuncle, gathering, imposthume[obs3], peccant humor, issue; rot, canker,
cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease,
malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene,
sphacelus[obs3], sphacelation[obs3], leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out.
fever, temperature, calenture[obs3]; inflammation.
ague, angina pectoris[Lat], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera[obs3],
spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic
plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia[obs3], blennorrhoea[obs3]; blood
poisoning, bloodstroke[obs3], bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever[obs3],
dengue fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest,
cardiomyopathy[Med]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis,
atherosclerosis; bronchocele[Med], canker rash, cardialgia[Med],
carditis[Med], endocarditis[Med]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis, chorea,
cynanche[obs3], dartre[Fr]; enanthem[obs3], enanthema[obs3]; erysipelas;
exanthem[obs3], exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness;
grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture,
hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw; measles,
mumps[obs3], polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis[obs3], pneumonia,
psora[obs3], pyaemia[obs3], pyrosis[Med], quinsy, rachitis[obs3], ringworm,
rubeola, St. Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula,
seasickness, struma[obs3], syntexis[obs3], tetanus, tetter[obs3],
tonsillitis, tonsilitis[obs3], tracheocele[Med], trachoma, trismus[Med],
varicella[Med], varicosis[Med], variola[Med], water qualm, whooping cough;
yellow fever, yellow jack.
fatal disease &c. (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping
consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the system.
[Disease of mind] idiocy &c. 499; insanity &c. 503.
martyr to disease; cripple; "the halt the lame and the blind";
valetudinary[obs3], valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick-
[Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology[obs3].
[Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter[obs3]; cattle
plague, glanders[obs3], mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline
leukemia, roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest.
[disease-causing agents] virus, bacterium, bacteria.
[types of viruses] DNA virus; RNA virus.
[RNA viruses] rhinovirus; rhabdovirus; picornavirus.
[DNA viruses] herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus, CMV; human
immunodefficiency virus, HIV.
V. be ill &c. adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with,
complain of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp.
keep one's bed; feign sickness &c. (falsehood) 544.
lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c. n., catch an
infection; break out.
Adj. diseased; ailing &c. v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with;
indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with illness,
afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden, invalided, in
hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts; under the weather
[U. S.]; valetudinary[obs3].
unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbid, morbose[obs3], healthless[obs3],
infirm, chlorotic[Med], unbraced[obs3]. drooping, flagging, lame, crippled,
morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned,
tabid[obs3], mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten
at the core; withered, palsied, paralytic; dyspeptic; luetic[obs3],
pneumonic, pulmonic[Med], phthisic[obs3], rachitic; syntectic[obs3],
syntectical[obs3]; tabetic[obs3], varicose.
touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de combat
&c. (useless) 645[Fr].
weakly, weakened &c. (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c. (deteriorated)
659; incurable &c. (hopeless) 859; in declining health; cranky; in a bad
way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c. (death) 360.
morbific &c. 657[obs3]; epidemic, endemic; zymotic[obs3].
<-- p. 208 -->
#656. Salubrity. -- N. salubrity; healthiness &c. Adj.
fine air, fine climate; eudiometer[obs3].
[Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian, valetudinarianism;
sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitorium.
V. be salubrious &c. Adj.; agree with; assimilate &c. 23.
Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous[obs3]; wholesome; healthy,
healthful; sanitary, prophYlactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating,
good for, nutritious; hygeian[obs3], hygienic.
innoxious[obs3], innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious,
sanative &c. (remedial) 662; restorative &c. (reinstate) 660; useful
#657. Insalubrity. -- N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c. Adj.;
nonnaturals[obs3]; plague spot; malaria &c. (poison) 663; death in the pot,
Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome;
morbific[obs3], morbiferous[obs3]; mephitic, septic, azotic[obs3],
deleterious; pestilent, pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous,
envenomed; poisonous, toxic, toxiferous[obs3], teratogenic; narcotic.
contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic[obs3];
innutritious[obs3], indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c.
deadly &c. (killing) 361.
#658. Improvement. -- N. improvement; amelioration, melioration;
betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c. v.; advancement;
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascent &c. 305; promotion, preferment;
elevation &c. 307; increase &c. 35; cultivation, civilization; culture,
march of intellect; menticulture[obs3]; race-culture, eugenics.
reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts,
correction, limoe labor[Lat], refinement, elaboration; purification &c.
652; oxidation; repair &c. (restoration) 660; recovery &c. 660.
revise, new edition.
V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascend &c. 305; increase &c. 35; fructify,
ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable turn; turn over
a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow one's wild oats; recover
be better &c. adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to
good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of; make
good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.
render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate, meliorate;
improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate, fatten.
promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward, bring
on; foster &c. 707; invigorate &c. (strengthen) 159.
touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up, brighten
up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to advantage; prune;
repair &c. (restore) 660; put in order &c. (arrange) 60.
review, revise; make corrections, make improvements &c. n.; doctor &c.
(remedy) 662; purify,&c. 652.
relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.
reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.
view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to
palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c. 36.
Adj. improving &c. v.; progressive, improved &c. v.; better, better
off, better for; all the better for; better advised.
reformatory, emendatory[obs3]; reparatory &c. (restorative) 660[obs3];
remedial &c. 662.
corrigible, improvable; accultural[obs3].
adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on
better advice; ad melius inquirendum[Lat].
phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit[Lat].
<-- p. 209 -->
#659. Deterioration. -- N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb;
recession &c. 287; retrogradation &c. 283[obs3]; decrease &c. 36.
degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation; depravation,
depravement; devolution; depravity &c. 945; demoralization, retrogression;
impairment, inquination|, injury, damage, loss, detriment,
delaceration|, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath[obs3]; perversion,
prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution, defoedation|,
poisoning, venenation|, leaven, contamination, canker, corruption,
decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency[obs3]; falling
off &c. v.; caducity[obs3], decrepitude.
decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion,
erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight,
marasmus[obs3], atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c.
(destruction)[Fr]. 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron[obs3];
wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra[Lat]; jade, plug,
rackabones [obs3][U. S.], skate [U. S.]; tackey[obs3], tacky [U. S.].
V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c.
Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c.
(decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c. 283- decline, droop; go down &c. (sink)
306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare worse; jump out
of the frying pan into the fire.
run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale|, sweal|; lapse, be the
worse for; sphacelate; break[obs3], break down; spring a leak, crack,
start; shrivel &c. (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot,
rankle, decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; "fall into the sear
and yellow leaf", rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish
&c. 162; die &c. 360.
[Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c. 160; put back, set back;
taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison[obs3], envenom, canker,
corrupt, exulcerate|, pollute, vitiate, inquinate|; debase, embase|;
denaturalize, denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave,
degrade; ulcerate; stain &c. (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate,
sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice.
pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c. 945.
embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate.
injure, impair, labefy[obs3], damage, harm, hurt, shend|, scath|,
scathe, spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage
wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate|, cripple, hough[obs3],
hamstring, hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate, disfigure,
blemish, deface, warp.
blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at the
root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break up;
disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c. 162.
damnify &c. (aggrieve) 649[obs3]; do one's worst; knock down; deal a
blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief with, play
the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among, play sad havoc
among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among, play the very devil
Adj. unimproved &c. (improve &c. 658); deteriorated &c. v.; altered,
altered for the worse; injured &c. v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c. v.;
on the wane, on the decline; tabid[obs3]; degenerate; marescent[obs3];
worse; the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune;
imperfect &c. 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten;
stale, passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby,
secondhand, threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to
the stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky
decayed &c. v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy,
spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted,
crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c.
(vicious) 945; decrepid[obs3], decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of
commission, hors de combat[Fr], out of action, broken down; done, done for,
done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for the dust hole,
fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c. (useless) 645.
at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined, deciduous;
nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162; tottering &c,. (dangerous) 665:
past cure &c. (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c. 688; retrograde &c.
(retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c. 649.
Phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo[Latin];
"what a falling off was there!" [Hamlet].
<-- p. 210 -->
#660. Restoration. -- N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement,
replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution,
reconstruction; reproduction &c. 163; renovation, renewal; revival,
revivessence[obs3], reviviscence[obs3]; refreshment &c. 689; resuscitation,
reanimation, revivification, reviction|; Phenix; reorganization.
renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence[obs3],. new birth;
regeneration, regeneracy[obs3], regenerateness[obs3]; palingenesis[obs3],
redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence; resumption,
recurrence &c. (repetition) 104; rechauffe[Fr], rifacimento[It].
cure, recure|, sanation|; healing &c. v.; redintegration[obs3];
repair, reparation, remanufacture; recruiting &c. v.; cicatrization;
reaction; redemption &c. (deliverance) 672; restitution &c. 790;
relief &c. 834.
tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c. (remedy) 662[obs3]. curableness.
V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to,
come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be oneself
again; get well ,get round, get the better of, get over, get about; rise
from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c. (outlive) 110; resume,
reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise again.
heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself.
restore, put back, place in statu quo[Lat]; reinstate, replace,
reseat, rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate[obs3], reinstall.
reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew,
renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate.
redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c. (deliver) 672.
redress, recure[obs3]; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate;
break of; bring round, set on one's legs.
resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life; reproduce
&c. 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c. 689.
make whole, redintegrate[obs3]; recoup &c. 790; make good, make all
square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to
rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c. (arrange) 60; refit,
recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.
repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put in
complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch|, vamp, tinker, cobble; do up,
patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw[obs3],
heelpiece[obs3]; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice,
bind up wounds.
Adj. restored &c. v.; redivivus[Lat], convalescent; in a fair way;
none the worse; rejuvenated.
restoring &c. v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative,
sanatory[obs3], reparatory[obs3]; curative, remedial.
restorable, recoverable, sanable[obs3], remediable, retrievable,
Adv. in statu quo[Lat]; as you were.
phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr]; medecin[Fr], gueris-toi toi-meme[Fr];
vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat][Horace].
#661. Relapse. -- N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c. v.;
retrogradation &c. (retrogression) 283[obs3]; deterioration &c. 659.
[Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding, recidivation |;
recidivism, recidivity[obs3]; recrudescence.
V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return;
retrograde &c. 283; recidivate; fall off again &c. 659.
<-- p. 211 -->
<-- remedy = medicine; needs to be greatly expanded -->
#662. Remedy. -- N. remedy, help, cure, redress; medicine, medicament;
diagnosis, medical examination; medical treatment; surgery; preventive
[medical devices] clinical thermometer, stethoscope, X-ray machine.
anthelmintic[Med]; antidote, antifebrile[Med], antipoison[obs3],
counterpoison[obs3], antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo;
helminthagogue[obs3], lithagogue[obs3], pick-meup, stimulant, tonic;
vermifuge, prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c. 174;
palliative; febrifuge; alterant[obs3], alterative; specific; antiseptic,
emetic, analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive[Med], antiinflammatory[Med],
antibiotic, antiviral[Med], antifungal[Med], carminative; Nepenthe,
cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain cure;
examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy,
medicine, physic, Galenicals[obs3], simples, drug, pharmaceutical,
prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion,
drip, suppository, electuary[obs3]; linctus[obs3], lincture[obs3];
nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon[obs3], panacea,
elixir, elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial,
agueweed[obs3], arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset[obs3],
calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts[Chem];
feverroot[obs3], feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac,
ipecacuanha; jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine,
quinquina[obs3]; sassafras, yarrow.
salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster;
epithem[obs3], embrocation[obs3], liniment, cataplasm[obs3],
sinapism[obs3], arquebusade[obs3], traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic[obs3],
poultice, collyrium[obs3], depilatory; emplastrum[obs3]; eyewater[obs3],
compress, pledget[obs3]; bandage &c. (support) 215.
treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis
medicatrix[obs3], vis medicatrix naturae[Lat][obs3]; medecine
expectante[Fr]; bloodletting, bleeding, venesection[Med], phlebotomy,
cupping, sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion,
infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube;
prevention, preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation,
vaccination, vaccine, shot, booster, gamma globulin.
pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary;
acology[obs3], Materia Medica[Lat], therapeutics, posology[obs3];
homeopathy, allopathy[obs3], heteropathy[Med], osteopathy, hydropathy[Med];
cold water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery[Med], chirurgy[obs3];
healing art, leechcraft[obs3];
orthopedics, orthopedy[obs3], orthopraxy[obs3]; pediatrics;
dentistry, midwifery, obstetrics, gynecology; tocology[obs3];
hospital, infirmary; pesthouse[obs3], lazarhouse[obs3]; lazaretto;
lock hospital; maison de sante[Fr]; ambulance.
dispensary; dispensatory[obs3], drug store, pharmacy, apothecary,
Hotel des Invalides; sanatorium, spa, pump room, well; hospice; Red
doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general
practitioner, specialist; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist; leech;
osteopath, osteopathist[obs3]; optometrist, ophthalmologist; internist,
oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist[Med], public health
specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor, shaman, faith healer,
quack, exorcist; Aesculapius[obs3], Hippocrates, Galen; accoucheur[Fr],
accoucheuse[Fr], midwife, oculist, aurist[obs3]; operator; nurse,
registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse, sister; nurse's aide,
candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist[obs3], pharmacist,
druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist[obs3].
V. apply a remedy &c. n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to,
attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c. 706; relieve &c. 834;
palliate &c. 658; restore &c. 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup, let
operate, excise, cut out; incise.
Adj. remedial; restorative &c. 660; corrective, palliative, healing;
sanatory[obs3], sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing;
salutiferous &c. (salutary) 656[obs3]; medical, medicinal; therapeutic,
chirurgical[Med], epulotic|, paregoric, tonic, corroborant,
analeptic[obs3], balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative,
lenitive, demulcent|, emollient; depuratory[obs3]; detersive[obs3],
detergent; abstersive[obs3], disinfectant, febrifugal[obs3], alterative;
allopathic[obs3], heteropathic[obs3], homeopathic, hydropathic[Med];
anthelmintic[Med]; antifebrile[Med], antiluetic[obs3]; aperient[obs3],
chalybeate[obs3], deobstruent[obs3], depurative[obs3], laxative,
dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic;
alexipharmic[obs3], alexiteric[obs3]; remediable, curable.
phr. aux grands maux les grands remedes[Fr]; Dios que da la llaga da
la medicina[Sp]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte[Sp]; temporis
ars medicina fere est [Lat][Ovid]; "the remedy is worse than the disease"
[Dryden]; "throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it" [Macbeth].
<-- p. 212 -->
#663. Bane. -- N. bane, curse; evil &c. 619; hurtfulness &c. (badness)
649[obs3]; painfulness &c. (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c. (punishment)
975; damnosa hereditas[Lat]; white elephant.
sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle.
poison, toxin; teratogen; leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony,
tartar emetic; strychnine, nicotine; miasma, miasm[obs3], mephitis[obs3],
malaria, azote[obs3], sewer gas; pest.
[poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp[obs3], arsenious oxide,
arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas; choke
damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide, Prussic
acid[ISA:chemsubcfp], hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica[Lat],
[poisonous plants] hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna,
henbane, aconite; banewort[obs3], bhang, ganja[obs3], hashish; Upas tree.
[list of poisonous substances(on-line)] Toxline.
rust, worm, helminth[Med], moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew; dry
rot; canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c. (evil doer) 913; demon
[Science of poisons] toxicology.
Adj. baneful &c. (bad) 649; poisonous &c. (unwholesome) 657.
phr. bibere venenum in auro[Lat].
#664. Safety. -- N. safety, security, surety, impregnability;
invulnerability, invulnerableness &c. Adj.; danger past, danger over;
storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c. 671; means of escape; blow valve,
safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard, palladium.
guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody, safekeeping;
preservation &c. 670; protection, auspices.
safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c. (defense) 717;
guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius loci.
protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna[Sp],
chaperon, third person.
watchdog, bandog[obs3]; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop,
dick, fuzz, smokey, peeler|, zarp|[all slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c.
(warning) 668; garrison; guardship[obs3].
[Means of safety] refuge &c. anchor &c. 666; precaution &c.
(preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire[Fr]. confidence &c.
858[Sense of security].
V. be safe &c. Adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save
one's bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet,
land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c. 671.
make safe, render safe &c. Adj.; protect; take care of &c. (care)
459; preserve &c. 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward; guard
&c. (defend) 717; secure &c. (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench[obs3],
fence round &c. (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge
escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol.
make assurance doubly sure &c. (caution) 864; take up a loose thread;
take precautions &c. (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails.
seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c. 666.
Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side;
under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the
shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger, out
of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed, unscathed; on
sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water; unthreatened[obs3],
unmolested; protected &c. v.; cavendo tutus[Lat]; panoplied &c. (defended)
snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof.
defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable,
unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible|; inexpugnable;
safe and sound &c. (preserved) 670;scathless &c. (perfect) 650[obs3];
unhazarded[obs3]; not dangerous &c. 665.
unthreatening, harmless; friendly (cooperative) 709.
protecting, protective &c. v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c.
670; trustworthy &c 939.
adv. ex abundanti cautela[Lat][obs3]; with impunity.
phr. all's well; salva res est[Lat]; suave mari magno[Lat]; a
couvert[Fr]; e terra alterius spectare laborem [Lat][Lucretius]; Dieu vous
<-- p. 213 -->
#665. Danger. -- N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard,
venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c. 149; defenselessness
&c. Adj. exposure &c. (liability) 177; vulnerability; vulnerable point,
heel of Achilles[obs3]; forlorn hope &c. (hopelessness) 859.
[Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c. (rashness) 863; road to ruin,
faciles descensus Averni [Lat][Vergil], hairbreadth escape.
cause for alarm; source of danger &c. 667. rock ahead[Approach of
danger], breakers ahead; storm brewing; clouds in the horizon, clouds
gathering; warning &c. 668; alarm &c. 669.
[Sense of danger] apprehension &c. 860.
V. be in danger &c. Adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur
danger, encounter danger &c. n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c.
(liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel the
ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances against
one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep trouble, be
between a rock and a hard place.
hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano; sit
on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house.
bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger, place in jeopardy,
put in jeopardy &c. n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil; jeopard[obs3],
jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c. (rash) 863.
adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the
gauntlet &c. (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope.
threaten danger &c. 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c. (deceive)
Adj. in danger &c. n.; endangered &c. v.; fraught with danger;
dangerous, hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous|; unsafe, unprotected
&c. (safe, protect &c. 664);insecure, untrustworthy; built upon sand, on
a sandy basis; wildcat.
defenseless, fenceless, guardless[obs3], harborless; unshielded;
vulnerable, expugnable[obs3], exposed; open to &c. (liable) 177.
aux abois[Fr], at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee shore,
on the rocks.
at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery,
slippy; hanging by a thread &c. v.; with a halter round one's neck; between
the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and
a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea, between two fires;
on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a precipice, on the verge of a
precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in the lion's den, on slippery ground,
under fire; not out of the wood.
unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, unprepared &c. 674; off one's guard
&c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3].
tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown,
ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless[obs3]; in a bad
way; reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the
balance; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162. threatening &c. 909;
ominous, illomened; alarming &c. (fear) 860; explosive.
adventurous &c. (rash) 863, (bold) 861.
Phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim[Lat]; nam tua res
agitur paries dum proximus ardet[Lat].
#666. [Means of safety.] Refuge. -- N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat,
fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c. 752; asylum, ark,
home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse[obs3]; hiding place &c. (ambush)
530; sanctum sanctorum &c. (privacy) 893[Lat].
roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor, harbor of
refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay.
covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella;
barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.].
wall &c. (inclosure) 232; fort &c. (defense) 717.
anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick[obs3];
mainstay; support &c. 215; cheek &c. 706; ballast.
jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp; lightning
rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt; antilock brakes,
antiskid tires, snow tires.
means of escape &c. (escape) 671 lifeboat, lifejacket, life buoy,
swimming belt, cork jacket; parachute, plank, steppingstone; emergency
safeguard &c. (protection) 664.
V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c. n.; seek safety, find
safety &c. 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber [U.
create a diversion.
Phr. any port in a storm; bibere venenum in auro[Lat]; valet anchora
<-- pitfall is related to deceiver and danger
#667. [Source of danger.] Pitfall. -- N. rocks, reefs, coral reef,
sunken rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt|, syrtis|; Goodwin sands,
sandy foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf,
flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.
precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c. 530; pitfall, trapdoor; trap
&c. (snare) 545.
sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in the
pot; latency &c. 526.
ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort[Fr]; firebrand,
Phr. latet anquis in herba [Lat][Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon
<-- p. 214 -->
#668. Warning. -- N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice
&c. (information) 527; premonition, premonishment[obs3]; prediction &c.
511; contraindication, lesson, dehortation[obs3]; admonition, monition;
alarm &c. 669.
handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag, yellow
flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice, Cassandra[obs3],
signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens[obs3], stormy petrel, bird of
ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.
watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c. (indication of
locality) 550. sentinel, sentry; watch, watchman; watch and ward;
watchdog, bandog[obs3], housedog[obs3]; patrol, patrolman, vedette[obs3],
picket, bivouac, scout, spy, spial|; undercover agent, mole,
plainclothesman; advanced guard, rear guard; lookout.
cautiousness &c. 864.
monitor, guard camera,
radar, AWACS, spy satellite, spy-in-the-sky, U2 plane, spy plane.
V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn[obs3]; admonish, premonish[obs3];
give notice, give warning, dehort[obs3]; menace &c. (threaten) 909; put on
one's guard; sound the alarm &c. 669; croak.
beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch and
ward &c. (care) 459.
Adj. warning &c. v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory,
warned, forewarned &c. v.; on one's guard &c. (careful) 459,
Adv. in terrorem[Lat] &c. (threat) 909.
Int. beware! ware! take care! look out! fore![golf], mind what you are
about!, take care what you are about! mind!
Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [French: don't wake a sleeping
cat]; foenum habet in cornu[Lat]; caveat actor; le silence du people est la
legon des rois[Fr]; verbum sat sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise is
sufficient]; un averti en vaut deux[Fr].
#669. [Indication of danger.] Alarm. -- N. alarm; alarum, larum[obs3],
alarm bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm,
hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war-
whoop; warning &c. 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal; red
light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle.
false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo.
V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the
alarm, beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn
in an alarm, beat an alarm &c. n.; alarm; warn &c. 668; ring the tocsin;
battre la generale[Fr]; cry wolf.
Adj. alarming &c. v.
Int. sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; qui vive?
#670. Preservation. -- N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c.
(storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation[obs3], conservatism; vis
conservatrix[obs3]; salvation &c. (deliverance) 672.
[Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative,
additive; antibiotics, antifungals[Med], biocide; hygiastics[obs3],
hygiantics[obs3]; cover, drugget[obs3]; cordon sanitaire[Fr]; canning;
ensilage; tinned goods, canned goods.
[Superstitious remedies] snake oil, spider webs, cure-all; laetrile;
charm &c. 993.
V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep
alive; refrigerate, keep on ice; not willingly let die; bank up; nurse;
save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c. 664; take care of &c. (care) 459;
guard &c. (defend) 717.
stare super antiquas vias [Lat][Bacon]; hold one's own; hold one's
ground, stand one's ground &c. (resist) 719.
embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize|, bottle, pot, tin, can;
sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize[Chem], freeze-dry,
concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband &c.
Adj. preserving &c. v.; conservative; prophylactic;
preservatory[obs3], preservative; hygienic.
preserved &c. v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt,
unsinged[obs3], unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin.
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3].
#671. Escape. -- N. escape, scape; avolation|, elopement, flight;
evasion &c. (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape;
close call; come off, impunity.
[Means of escape] loophole &c. (opening) 260; path &c. 627; refuse &c.
666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape.
reprieve &c. (deliverance) 672; liberation &c. 750. refugee &c.
V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good
one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of; echapper
belle[Fr], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the storm &c. (safe)
664; escape scot-free.
elude &c., make off &c. (avoid) 623; march off &c. (go away) 293;
give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers; slip
the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break loose
from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a hole to
creep out of.
Adj..escaping, escaped &c. v. stolen away, fled.
Phr. the bird has flown the coop.
<-- p. 215 -->
#672. Deliverance. -- N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve,
reprieval[obs3]; respite; liberation &c. 750; emancipation; redemption,
salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness[obs3].
V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring
off, bring through; tirer d'affaire[Fr], get the wheel out of the rut,
snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve &c.
(restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of.
Adj. saved &c. v. extricable, redeemable, rescuable.
Int. to the rescue!
3. Precursory Measures
#673. Preparation. -- N. preparation; providing &c. v.; provision,
providence; anticipation &c. (foresight) 510; precaution,
preconcertation[obs3], predisposition; forecast &c. (plan) 626; rehearsal,
note of preparation.
[Putting in order] arrangement &c. 60; clearance; adjustment &c. 23;
tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array.
ripening &c. v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction,
digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting.
groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation, scaffold
&c. (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage[Fr].
[Preparation of men] training &c. (education) 537; inurement &c.
(habit) 613; novitiate; cooking[ Preparation of food], cookery; brewing,
culinary art; tilling[ Preparation of the soil], plowing, sowing;
[State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness,
mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir[Fr].
[Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant-
courrier[Fr], avant-coureur[Fr]; voortrekker[Afrikaans]; sappers and
miners, pavior[obs3], navvy[obs3]; packer, stevedore; warming pan.
V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle
preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation. set in order, put in
order &c. (arrange) 60; forecast &c. (plan) 626 prepare the ground, plow
the ground, dress the ground; till the soil, cultivate the soil;
predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a mine; lay the groundwork, fix
the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the basis, lay the foundations, fix
the foundations; dig the foundations, erect the scaffolding; lay the first
stone &c. (begin) 66.
roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c.
elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity; nurture
&c. (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt; barbecue;
infumate|; maturate. equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress,
garnish, betrim[obs3], accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish
up, brush up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils,
set, prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up;
adjust &c. (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in working
order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.
train &c. (teach) 537; inure &c. (habituate) 613; breed; prepare &c.
for; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take
precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the door
to &c. (facilitate) 705.
set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear for
action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards.
prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c. (learn) 539; lay oneself
out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's armor,
reculer pour mieux sauter[Fr], prime and load, shoulder arms, get the steam
up, put the horses to.
guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for the
evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day, feather one's
nest; lay in provisions &c. 637; make investments; keep on foot.
be prepared, be ready &c. Adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep one's
powder dry; lie in wait for &c. (expect) 507; anticipate &c. (foresee) 510;
principiis obstare[Lat]; veniente occurrere morbo[Lat].
Adj. preparing &c. v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in
agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the
stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c. (plan) 626; brewing,
batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.
precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional,
inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c. (precedent) 62.
prepared &c. v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready made,
ready cut and dried; made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in gear; in
working order, in working gear; snug; in practice.
ripe, mature, mellow; pukka[obs3]; practiced &c. (skilled) 698;
labored, elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up.
in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness; in
the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms; armed at
all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in hand; booted
in utrumque paratus[Lat], semper paratus[Lat]; on the alert &c.
(vigilant) 459; at one's post.
Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach[obs3].
Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor[Lat]; "looking before and after"
[Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum[Lat].
<-- p. 216 -->
#674. Nonpreparation. -- N. non-preparation, absence of preparation,
want of preparation; inculture|, inconcoction|, improvidence.
immaturity, crudity; rawness &c. Adj.; abortion; disqualification.
[Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded
garden; neglect &c. 460.
rough copy &c. (plan) 626; germ &c. 153; raw material &c. 635.
improvisation &c. (impulse) 612.
V. be unprepared &c. Adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie
fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits[Fr]; live from hand to mouth.
[Render unprepared] dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; undress &c.
226. extemporize, improvise, ad lib.
Adj. unprepared &c. [prepare &c. 673]; without preparation &c. 673;
incomplete &c. 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe,
kachcha[obs3], raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the
rough; unhewn[obs3], unformed, unfashioned[obs3], unwrought,
unlabored[obs3], unblown, uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.
unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured[obs3], unlicked[obs3], untaught,
uneducated, uncultivated,. untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised;
deckle-edged[obs3]; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested[obs3];
unmellowed[obs3], unseasoned, unleavened.
unrehearsed, unscripted, extemporaneous, improvised, spontaneous, ad
lib, ad libitem [Latin].
fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature; undressed; in
dishabille, en deshabille[Fr].
unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun, unready,
unarranged[obs3], unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped,
untrimmed; out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c. v.
shiftless, improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded;
happy-go-lucky; caught napping &c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3]; unpremeditated
Adv. extempore &c. 612.
#675. Essay. -- N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle,
venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai[Fr], debut; probation &c.
V. try, essay; experiment &c. 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt,
make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance, tempt
fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use one's
endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.
try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do one's
best &c. (exertion) 686.
Adj. essaying &c. v.; experimental &c. 463; tentative, empirical,
Adv. experimentally &c. Adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of
thumb. if one may be so bold.
Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat][Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia non
<-- p. 217 -->
#676. Undertaking. -- N. undertaking; compact &c. 769; adventure,
venture; engagement &c. (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise[obs3];
pilgrimage; matter in hand &c. (business ) 625; move; first move &c.
V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into;
volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c. (promise) 768; contract &c.
769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c.
take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall to,
set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in execution; set
forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put one's hand to, put
one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to, go to do; begin &c.
66; broach, institute &c. one's (originate) 153; put one's hand to the
plow, lay one's hand to the plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.
have in hand &c. (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c.
Adj. undertaking &c. v.; on the anvil &c. 625.
Int. here goes!
#677. Use. -- N. use; employ, employment; exercise,
exercitation[obs3]; application, appliance; adhibition[obs3], disposal;
consumption; agency &c. (physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c. 644;
benefit; recourse, resort, avail.
[Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear.
[Way of using] usage.
V. use,.make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in
operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work.
ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert, exercise,
practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have recourse to, recur
to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take advantage of; lay one's
hands on, try.
render useful &c. 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert to
use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into
requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into the
service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply,
adhibit[obs3], dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.
fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best of.
use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put to
Adj. in use; used &c. v.; well-worn, well-trodden.
useful &c. 644; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.
#678. Disuse. -- N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment
&c. 782; desuetude &c. (want of habit) 614; disusage[obs3].
V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear,
abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve. lay up, lay by, lay on
the shelf, keep on the shelf, lay up in ordinary; lay up in a napkin;
shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside; disuse, leave off, have done with;
supersede; discard &c. (eject) 297; dismiss, give warning.
throw aside &c. (relinquish) 782; make away with &c. (destroy) 162;
cast overboard, heave overboard, throw overboard; cast to the dogs, cast
to the winds; dismantle &c. (Render useless) 645.
lie unemployed, remain unemployed &c. Adj.
Adj. not used &c. v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent,
unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed[obs3], ungathered[obs3],
unculled; uncalled for, not required.
disused &c. v.; done with.
#679. Misuse. -- N. misuse, misusage, misemployment[obs3],
abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c. 638.
V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.
desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute; waste &c. 638; overtask,
overtax, overwork; squander &c. 818.
cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut; catch
at a straw.
Adj. misused &c. v.
Phr. ludere cum sacris[Lat].
<-- p. 218 -->
Section III. VOLUNTARY ACTION
1. Simple voluntary Action
#680. Action. -- N. action, performance; doing, &c. v.; perpetration;
exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c.
(exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c. (conduct) 692; handicraft;
business &c. 625; agency &c. (power at work) 170.
deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction[obs3], job,
doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage, move,
stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat[Fr]; tour de force &c.
(display) 882; feat, exploit; achievement &c. (completion) 729; handiwork,
workmanship; manufacture; stroke of policy &c. (plan) 626.
actor &c. (doer) 690.
V. do, perform, execute; achieve &c. (complete) 729; transact, enact;
commit, perpetrate, inflict; exercise, prosecute, carry on, work, practice,
employ oneself, ply one's task; officiate, have in hand &c. (business)
625; labor &c. 686; be at work; pursue a course; shape one's course &c.
act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a finger,
stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c. (undertake) 676; put oneself in
motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c. (complete) 729; act upon.
be an actor &c. 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in,
perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the
pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand,
lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c. (meddle)
be in action; come into operation &c. (power at work) 170.
Adj. doing &c. v.; acting; in action; in harness; on duty; in
operation &c. 170.
Adv. in the act, in the midst of, in the thick of; red-handed, in
flagrante delicto[Lat]; while one's hand is in.
Phr. "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than
words; actum aiunt ne agas [obs3][Lat][Terence]; "awake, arise, or be
forever fall'n" [Paradise Lost]; dii pia facta vident [Lat][Ovid]; faire
sans dire[Fr]; fare fac[It]; fronte capillata post est occasio calva[Lat];
"our deeds are sometimes better than our thoughts" [Bailey]; "the great
end of life is not knowledge but action" [Huxley]; "thought is the soul of
act" [R. Browning]; vivre-ce nest pas respirer c'est agir[Fr][obs3]; "we
live in deeds not years" [Bailey].
#681. Inaction. -- N. inaction, passiveness, abstinence from action;
noninterference, nonintervention; Fabian policy, conservative policy;
neglect &c. 460.
inactivity &c. 683; rest &c. (repose) 687; quiescence &c. 265; want of
occupation, inoccupation[obs3]; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands,
dolce far niente[It]; sinecure, featherbed, featherbedding, cushy job, no-
show job; soft snap, soft thing.
V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c. 683; abstain from
doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger, not
lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands; leave
alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course, let it
have its way, let well alone, let well enough alone; quieta non
movere[Lat]; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; rest and be thankful,
live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser aller[Fr], faire[Fr];
stand aloof; refrain &c. (avoid) 623 keep oneself from doing; remit one's
efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c. (relinquish) 624; stop &c. (cease)
142; pause &c. (be quiet) 265.
wait, lie in wait, bide one's time, take time, tide it over.
cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while away
tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time; talk
against time; let the grass grow under one's feet; waste time &c.
lie by, lie on the shelf, lie in ordinary, lie idle, lie to, lie
fallow; keep quiet, slug; have nothing to do, whistle for want of thought.
undo, do away with; take down, take to pieces; destroy &c. 162.
Adj. not doing &c. v.; not done &c. v.; undone; passive; unoccupied,
unemployed; out of employ, out of work; fallow; desaeuvre[Fr].
Adv. re infecta[Lat], at a stand, les bras croisis[Fr], with folded
arms; with the hands in the pockets, with the hands behind one's back; pour
passer le temps[Fr].
Int. so let it be! stop! &c. 142; hands off!
Phr. cunctando restituit rem "If it ain't broke don't fix it"
[Lat][Bert Lance]; stare decisis [Latin: (Law) let the decision stand].
<-- p. 219 -->
#682. Activity. -- N. activity; briskness, liveliness &c. adj.;
animation, life, vivacity, spirit, dash, energy; snap, vim.
nimbleness, agility; smartness, quickness &c. adj.; velocity, &c. 274;
alacrity, promptitude; despatch, dispatch; expedition; haste &c. 684;
punctuality &c. (early) 132.
eagerness, zeal, ardor, perfervidum aingenium[Lat][obs3],
empressement[Fr], earnestness, intentness; abandon; vigor &c. (physical
energy) 171; devotion &c. (resolution) 604; exertion &c. 686.
industry, assiduity; assiduousness &c. adj.; sedulity; laboriousness;
drudgery &c. (labor) 686; painstaking, diligence; perseverance &c. 604a;
indefatigation|; habits of business.
vigilance &c. 459; wakefulness; sleeplessness, restlessness; insomnia;
pervigilium[obs3], insomnium[obs3]; racketing.
movement, bustle, stir, fuss, ado, bother, pottering, fidget,
fidgetiness; flurry &c. (haste) 684.
officiousness; dabbling, meddling; interference, interposition,
intermeddling; tampering with, intrigue.
press of business, no sinecure, plenty to do, many irons in the fire,
great doings, busy hum of men, battle of life, thick of the action.
housewife, busy bee; new brooms; sharp fellow, sharp blade; devotee,
enthusiast, zealot, meddler, intermeddler, intriguer, busybody,
pickthank[obs3]; hummer, hustler, live man [U.S.], rustler * [U. S.].
V. be active &c. adj.; busy oneself in; stir, stir about, stir one's
stumps; bestir oneself, rouse oneself; speed, hasten, peg away, lay about
one, bustle, fuss; raise up, kick up a dust; push; make a push, make a
fuss, make a stir; go ahead, push forward; fight one's way, elbow one's
way; make progress &c. 282; toll &c. (labor) 686; plod, persist &c.
(persevere) 604a; keep up the ball, keep the pot boiling.
look sharp; have all one's eyes about one &c. (vigilance) 459; rise,
arouse oneself, hustle, get up early, be about, keep moving, steal a march,
kill two birds with one stone; seize the opportunity &c. 134 lose no time,
not lose a moment, make the most of one's time, not suffer the grass to
grow under one's feet, improve the shining hour, make short work of; dash
off; make haste &c. 684; do one's best take pains &c. (exert oneself)
686; do wonders, work wonders.
have many irons in the fire, have one's hands full, have much on one's
hands; have other things to do, have other fish to fry; be busy; not have a
moment to spare, not have a moment that one can call one's own.
have one's fling, run the round of; go all lengths, stick at nothing,
outdo; overdo, overact, overlay, overshoot the mark; make a toil of a
have a hand in &c. (act in) 680; take an active part, put in one's
oar, have a finger in the pie, mix oneself up with, trouble, one's head
about, intrigue; agitate.
tamper with, meddle, moil; intermeddle, interfere, interpose; obtrude;
poke one's nose in, thrust one's nose in.
Adj. active, brisk, brisk as a lark, brisk as a bee; lively, animated,
vivacious; alive, alive and kicking; frisky, spirited, stirring.
nimble, nimble as a squirrel; agile; light-footed, nimble-footed;
quick, prompt, yare[obs3], instant, ready, alert, spry, sharp, smart;
fast &c. (swift) 274; quick as a lamplighter, expeditious; awake, broad
awake; go-ahead, live wide-awake &c. (intelligent) 498[U.S.].
forward, eager, strenuous, zealous, enterprising, in earnest; resolute
industrious, assiduous, diligent, sedulous, notable, painstaking;
intent &c. (attention) 457; indefatigable &c. (persevering) 604a;
unwearied; unsleeping[obs3], never tired; plodding, hard-working &c. 686;
bustling; restless, restless as a hyena; fussy, fidgety, pottering;
busy, busy as hen with one chicken.
working, at work, on duty, in harness; up in arms; on one's legs, at
call; up and doing, up and stirring.
busy, occupied; hard at work, hard at it; up to one's ears in, full of
business, busy as a bee, busy as a one-armed paperhanger.
meddling &c. v.; meddlesome, pushing, officious, overofficious[obs3],
astir, stirring; agoing[obs3], afoot; on foot; in full swing;
eventful; on the alert, &c. (vigilant) 459.
Adv. actively &c. adj.; with life and spirit, with might and main &c.
686,with haste &c. 684, with wings; full tilt, in mediis rebus[Lat].
Int. be alive, look alive, look sharp! move on, push on! keep moving!
go ahead! stir your stumps! age quod agis[Lat]! jaldi[obs3]! karo[obs3]!
Phr. carpe diem &c. (opportunity) 134[Latin: seize the day]; nulla
dies sine linea [Latin][Pliny]; nec mora nec requies [Latin][Vergil];
the plot thickens; No sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; "veni vidi
vici" [Lat][Suetonius]; catch a weasel asleep; abends wird der Faule
fleissig [obs3][German]; dictum ac factum [Lat][Terence]; schwere Arbeit in
der Jugend ist sanfte Ruhe im Alter[German: hard work in youth means soft
rest in age]; "the busy hum of men" [Milton].
<-- p. 220 -->
#683. Inactivity. -- N. inactivity; inaction &c. 681; inertness &c.
172; obstinacy &c. 606.
lull &c. (cessation) 142; quiescence &c. 265; rust, rustiness.
idleness, remissness &c. adj.; sloth, indolence, indiligence[obs3];
dawdling &c. v. ergophobia[obs3], otiosity[obs3].
dullness &c. adj.; languor; segnity|, segnitude|; lentor[obs3];
sluggishness &c. (slowness) 275; procrastination &c. (delay) 133; torpor,
torpidity, torpescence[obs3]; stupor &c. (insensibility) 823; somnolence;
drowsiness &c. adj.; nodding &c. v.; oscitation[obs3], oscitancy[obs3];
pandiculation[obs3], hypnotism, lethargy; statuvolence heaviness[obs3],
sleep, slumber; sound sleep, heavy sleep, balmy sleep; Morpheus;
Somnus; coma, trance, ecstasis[obs3], dream, hibernation, nap, doze,
snooze, siesta, wink of sleep, forty winks, snore; hypnology[obs3].
dull work; pottering; relaxation &c. (loosening) 47; Castle of
[Cause of inactivity] lullaby, sedative, tranquilizer, hypnotic,
sleeping pill, relaxant, anaesthetic, general anaesthetic &c. 174;
[person who is inactive] idler, drone, droil[obs3], dawdle,
mopus[obs3]; do-little faineant[Fr], dummy, sleeping partner; afternoon
farmer; truant &c. (runaway) 623: bummer|!, loafer, goldbrick, goldbicker,
lounger, lazzarone[It]; lubber, lubbard[obs3]; slow coach &c. (slow.) 275;
opium eater, lotus eater; slug; lag|!, sluggard, slugabed; slumberer,
dormouse, marmot; waiter on Providence, fruges consumere natus[Lat].
V. be inactive &c. adj.; do nothing &c. 681; move slowly &c. 275; let
the grass grow under one's feet; take one's time, dawdle, drawl,
droil[obs3], lag, hang back, slouch; loll, lollop[obs3]; lounge, poke,
loaf, loiter; go to sleep over; sleep at one's post, ne battre que d'une
take it easy, take things as they come; lead an easy life, vegetate,
swim with the stream, eat the bread of idleness; loll in the lap of luxury,
loll in the lap of indolence; waste time, consume time, kill time, lose
time; burn daylight, waste the precious hours.
idle away time, trifle away time, fritter away time, fool away time;
spend time in, take time in; peddle, piddle; potter, pudder[obs3], dabble,
faddle fribble[obs3], fiddle-faddle; dally, dilly-dally.
sleep, slumber, be asleep; hibernate; oversleep; sleep like a top,
sleep like a log, sleep like a dormouse; sleep soundly, heavily; doze,
drowze[obs3], snooze, nap; take a nap &c. n.; dream; snore one's best;
settle to sleep, go to sleep, go off to sleep; doze off, drop off; fall
asleep; drop asleep; close the eyes, seal up the eyes, seal up eyelids;
weigh down the eyelids; get sleep, nod, yawn; go to bed, turn; get some
z's, stack z's [coll.].
languish, expend itself, flag, hang fire; relax.
render idle &c. adj.; sluggardize[obs3]; mitigate &c. 174.
Adj. inactive; motionless &c. 265; unoccupied &c. (doing nothing) 681
indolent, lazy, slothful, idle, lusk[obs3], remiss, slack, inert,
torpid, sluggish, otiose, languid, supine, heavy, dull, leaden,
lumpish[obs3]; exanimate[obs3], soulless; listless; drony[obs3],
dronish[obs3]; lazy as Ludlam's dog.
dilatory, laggard; lagging &c. v.; slow &c. 275; rusty, flagging;
lackadaisical, maudlin, fiddle-faddle; pottering &c. v.;shilly-shally &c.
sleeping, &c. v.; asleep; fast asleep, dead asleep, sound asleep; in a
sound sleep; sound as a top, dormant, comatose; in the arms of Morpheus, in
the lap of Morpheus.
sleepy, sleepful[obs3]; dozy[obs3], drowsy, somnolent,
torpescent[obs3], lethargic, lethargical[obs3]; somnifacient[obs3];
statuvolent[obs3], statuvolic[obs3]; heavy, heavy with sleep; napping;
somnific[obs3], somniferous; soporous[obs3], soporific, soporiferous[obs3];
hypnotic; balmy, dreamy; unawakened, unawakened.
sedative &c. 174.
Adv. inactively &c. adj.; at leisure &c. 685.
Phr. the eyes begin to draw straws; "bankrupt of life yet prodigal of
ease" [Dryden]; "better 50 years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay"
[Tennyson]; "idly busy rolls their world away" [Goldsmith]; "the mystery
of folded sleep" [Tennyson]; "the timely dew of sleep" [Milton]; "thou
driftest gently down the tides of sleep" [Longfellow]; "tired Nature's
sweet restorer, balmy sleep" [Young].
<-- p. 221 -->
#684. Haste. -- N. haste, urgency; despatch, dispatch; acceleration,
spurt, spirt[obs3], forced march, rush, dash; speed, velocity &c. 274;
precipitancy, precipitation, precipitousness &c. adj.; impetuosity;
brusquerie[obs3]; hurry, drive, scramble, bustle, fuss, fidget, flurry,
V. haste, hasten; make haste, make a dash &c. n.; hurry on, dash on,
whip on, push on, press on, press forward; hurry, skurry[obs3], scuttle
along, barrel along, bundle on, dart to and fro, bustle, flutter, scramble;
plunge, plunge headlong; dash off; rush &c. (violence) 173; express.
bestir oneself &c. (be active) 682; lose no time, lose not a moment,
lose not an instant; make short work of; make the best of one's time, make
the best of one's way.
be precipitate &c. adj.; jump at, be in haste, be in a hurry &c. n.;
have no time, have not a moment to lose, have not a moment to spare; work
quicken &c. 274; accelerate, expedite, put on, precipitate, urge,
Adj. hasty, hurried, brusque; scrambling, cursory, precipitate,
headlong, furious, boisterous, impetuous, hotheaded; feverish, fussy;
in haste, in a hurry &c. n.; in hot haste, in all haste; breathless,
pressed for time, hard pressed, urgent.
Adv. with haste, with all haste, with breathless speed; in haste &c.
adj.; apace &c. (swiftly) 274; amain[obs3]; all at once &c.
(instantaneously) 113; at short notice &c., immediately &c. (early) 132;
posthaste; by cable, by express, by telegraph, by forced marches.
hastily, precipitately &c. adj.; helter-skelter, hurry-skurry[obs3],
holus-bolus; slapdash, slap-bang; full-tilt, full drive; heels over head,
head and shoulders, headlong, a corps perdu[Fr].
by fits and starts, by spurts; hop skip and jump.
Phr. sauve qui peut[French: every man for himself][panic], devil take
the hindmost, no time to be lost; no sooner said than done &c. (early) 132;
a word and a blow; haste makes waste, maggiore fretta minore atto
[Italian]; ohne Hast aber ohne Rast [German][Goethe's motto]; "stand not
upon the order of your going but go at once" [Macbeth]; "swift, swift, you
dragons of the night" [Cymbeline].
#685. Leisure. -- N. leisure; convenience; spare time, spare hours,
spare moments; vacant hour; time, time to spare, time on one's hands;
holiday, relaxation &c. (rest) 687; otium cum dignitate [Lat][obs3][Cic.],
no hurry; no big rush; no deadline.
V. have leisure &c. n.; take one's time, take one's leisure, take
one's ease; repose &c. 687; move slowly &c. 275; while away the time &c.
(inaction) 681; be master of one's time, be an idle man.
Adj. leisure, leisurely; slow &c. 275; deliberate, quiet, calm,
undisturbed; at leisure, at one's ease, at loose ends, at a loose end.
Adv. unhurriedly, deliberately, without undue haste; anytime.
Phr. time hanging heavy on one's hands; eile mit Weile[Ger].
#686. Exertion. -- N. exertion, effort, strain, tug, pull, stress,
throw, stretch, struggle, spell, spurt, spirt[obs3]; stroke of work, stitch
"a strong pull a long pull and a pull all together"; dead lift; heft;
gymnastics; exercise, exercitation[obs3]; wear and tear; ado; toil and
trouble; uphill work, hard work, warm work; harvest time.
labor, work, toil, travail, manual labor, sweat of one's brow,
swink[obs3], drudgery, slavery, fagging[obs3], hammering; limae
labor[Lat]; industry, industriousness, operoseness[obs3], operosity[obs3].
trouble, pains, duty; resolution &c. 604; energy &c. (physical) 171.
V. exert oneself; exert one's energies, tax one's energies; use
labor, work, toil, moil, sweat, fag, drudge, slave, drag a lengthened
chain, wade through, strive, stretch a long arm; pull, tug, ply; ply the
oar, tug at the oar; do the work; take the laboring oar
bestir oneself (be active) 682; take trouble, trouble oneself.
work hard; rough it; put forth one's strength, put forth a strong arm;
fall to work, bend the bow; buckle to, set one's shoulder to the wheel &c.
(resolution) 604; work like a horse, work like a cart horse, work like a
galley slave, work like a coal heaver; labor day and night, work day and
night; redouble one's efforts; do double duty; work double hours, work
double tides; sit up, burn the candle at both ends; stick to &c.
(persevere) 604a; work one's way, fight one's way; lay about one, hammer
take pains; do one's best, do one's level best, do one's utmost; give
one hundred percent, do the best one can, do all one can, do all in one's
power, do as much as in one lies, do what lies in one's power; use one's
best endeavor, use one's utmost endeavor; try one's best, try one's utmost;
play one's best card; put one's best leg foremost, put one's right leg
foremost; have one's whole soul in his work, put all one's strength into,
strain every nerve; spare no efforts, spare no pains; go all lengths; go
through fire and water &c. (resolution) 604; move heaven and earth, leave
no stone unturned.
Adj. laboring &c. v.
laborious, operose[obs3], elaborate; strained; toilsome, troublesome,
wearisome; uphill; herculean, gymnastic, palestric[obs3].
hard-working, painstaking; strenuous, energetic.
hard at work, on the stretch.
Adv. laboriously &c. adj.; lustily; pugnis et calcibus[Lat]; with
might and main, with all one's might, with a strong hand, with a sledge
hammer, with much ado; to the best of one's abilities, totis viribus[Lat],
vi et armis[Lat], manibus pedibusque[Lat], tooth and nail, unguibus et
rostro[Lat], hammer and tongs, heart and soul; through thick and thin &c.
by the sweat of one's brow, suo Marte.
Phr. aide-toi le ciel t'aidera[Fr]; "and still be doing, never done"
[Butler]; buen principio la mitad es hecha [Sp]; cosa ben fatta e' fatta
due volie [It];"it is better to wear out than to rust out" [Bp. Hornel];
labor omnia vincit "labor, wide as the earth, has its summit in Heaven"
[Lat][Vergil][Carlyle]; le travail du corps delivre des peines de l'esprit
[Fr][fr]; manu forti[Lat]; ora et labora[Lat].
#687. Repose. -- N. repose, rest, silken repose; sleep &c. 683.
relaxation, breathing time; halt, stay, pause &c. (cessation) 142;
day of rest, dies non, Sabbath, Lord's day, holiday, red-letter day,
V. repose; rest, rest and be thankful; take a rest, take one's ease,
take it easy.
relax, unbend, slacken; take breath &c. (refresh) 689; rest upon one's
oars; pause &c. (cease) 142; stay one's hand.
lie down; recline, recline on a bed of down, recline on an easy chair;
go to rest, go to bed, go to sleep &c. 683.
take a holiday, shut up shop; lie fallow &c. (inaction) 681.
Adj. reposing &c. v[of people].; relaxed &c. v.; unstrained.
[of materials and people] unstressed.
Adv. at rest.
Phr."the best of men have ever loved repose" [Thompson]; "to repair
our nature with comforting repose" [Henry VIII].
<-- p. 222 -->
#688. Fatigue. -- N. fatigue; weariness &c. 841; yawning, drowsiness
&c. 683; lassitude, tiredness, fatigation|, exhaustion; sweat; dyspnoea.
anhelation, shortness of breath; faintness; collapse, prostration,
swoon, fainting, deliquium[Lat], syncope, lipothymy[obs3]; goneness[obs3].
V. be fatigued &c. adj.; yawn &c. (get sleepy) 683; droop, sink, flag;
lose breath, lose wind; gasp, pant, puff, blow, drop, swoon, faint,
fatigue, tire, weary, irk, flag, jade, harass, exhaust, knock up, wear
tax, task, strain; overtask, overwork, overburden, overtax,
Adj. fatigued, tired &c. v.; weary &c. 841; drowsy &c. 683; drooping
&c. v.; haggard; toilworn[obs3], wayworn; footsore, surbated|, weather-
beaten; faint; done up, used up, knocked up; bushed * [U.S.]; exhausted,
prostrate, spent; overtired, overspent, overfatigued; unrefreshed[obs3],
worn, worn out; battered, shattered, pulled down, seedy, altered.
breathless, windless; short of breath, out of breath, short of wind;
blown, puffing and blowing; short-breathed; anhelose[obs3]; broken winded,
short-winded; dyspnaeal[obs3], dyspnaeic[obs3].
ready to drop, all in, more dead than alive, dog-weary, walked off
one's legs, tired to death, on one's last legs, played out, hors de
fatiguing &c v.; tiresome, irksome, wearisome; weary, trying.
#689. Refreshment. -- N. bracing &c. v.; recovery of strength,
recuperation &c. 159; restoration, revival &c. 660; repair, refection,
refocillation|, refreshment, regalement[obs3], bait; relief &c. 834.
refreshment stand; refreshments; ice cream[list], cold soda, soda
pop, hot dogs (food).
V. brace &c. (strengthen) 159; reinvigorate; air, freshen up,
refresh, recruit; repair &c. (restore) 660; fan, refocillate|; refresh the
breathe, respire; drink in the ozone; take a break, take a breather,
take five, draw breath, take a deep breath, take breath, gather breath,
take a long breath, regain breath, recover breath; get better, raise one's
head; recover one's strength, regain one's strength, renew one's strength
&c. 159; perk up, get one's second wind.
come to oneself &c. (revive) 660; feel refreshed, feel like a giant
Adj. refreshing &c v.; recuperative &c. 660.
refreshed &c. v.; untired[obs3], unwearied.
<-- p. 223 -->
#690. Agent.-- N. doer, actor, agent, performer, perpetrator,
operator; executor, executrix; practitioner, worker, stager.
bee, ant, working bee, termite, white ant; laboring oar, servant of
all work, factotum.
workman, artisan; craftsman, handicraftsman; mechanic, operative;
working man; laboring man; demiurgus, hewers of wood and drawers of water,
laborer, navvy[obs3]; hand, man, day laborer, journeyman, charwoman, hack;
mere tool &c. 633; beast of burden, drudge, fag; lumper[obs3], roustabout.
maker, artificer, artist, wright, manufacturer, architect, builder,
mason, bricklayer, smith, forger, Vulcan; carpenter; ganger, platelayer;
blacksmith, locksmith, sailmaker, wheelwright.
machinist, mechanician, engineer.
sempstress[obs3], semstress[obs3], seamstress; needlewoman[obs3],
workwoman; tailor, cordwainer[obs3].
minister &c. (instrument) 631; servant &c. 746; representative &c.
(commissioner) 758, (deputy) 759.
coworker, party to, participator in, particeps criminis[Lat], dramatis
Phr. quorum pars magna fui [Lat][Vergil]; faber est quisque fortunae
#691. Workshop. -- N. workshop, workhouse, workplace, shop, place of
business; manufactory, mill, plant, works, factory; cabinet, studio;
office, branch office bureau, atelier.
hive[specific types of workplace: list], hive of industry; nursery;
hothouse, hotbed; kitchen; mint, forge, loom; dock, dockyard;
alveary[obs3]; armory; laboratory, lab, research institute; refinery;
cannery; power plant; beauty parlor; beehive, bindery, forcing pit,
nailery[obs3], usine[obs3], slip, yard, wharf; foundry, foundery[obs3];
crucible, alembic, caldron, matrix.
Adj. at work, at the office, at the shop; working.
2. Complex Voluntary Action
#692. Conduct. -- N. conduct[actions of an individual agent];
behavior; deportment, comportment; carriage, maintien[obs3], demeanor,
guise, bearing, manner, observance.
dealing, transaction &c. (action) 680; business &c. 625.
tactics, game, game plan, policy, polity; generalship, statesmanship,
seamanship; strategy, strategics[obs3]; plan &c. 626.
management; husbandry; housekeeping, housewifery; stewardship; menage;
regime; economy, economics; political economy; government &c. (direction)
execution, manipulation, treatment, campaign, career, life, course,
walk, race, record.
course of conduct, line of conduct, line of action, line of
proceeding; role; process, ways, practice, procedure, modus operandi, MO,
method of operating; method &c., path &c. 627.
V. transact[cause to occur], execute; despatch, dispatch; proceed
with, discharge; carry on, carry through, carry out, carry into effect, put
into effect; work out; go through, get through; enact; put into practice;
do &c. 680; officiate &c. 625.
bear oneself, behave oneself, comport oneself, demean oneself, carry
oneself, conduct oneself, acquit oneself.
run a race, lead a life, play a game; take a course, adopt a course;
steer one's course, shape one's course; play one's paint, play one's cards,
shift for oneself; paddle one's own canoe; bail one's own boat.
conduct; manage, supervise &c. (direct) 693.
participate &c. 680.
deal with, have to do with; treat, handle a case; take steps, take
Adj. conducting &c. v. strategical, businesslike, practical,
<-- p. 224 -->
#693. Direction. -- N. direction; management, managery[obs3];
government, gubernation[obs3], conduct, legislation, regulation, guidance;
bossism [U.S.]; legislature; steerage, pilotage; reins, reins of
government; helm, rudder, needle, compass; guiding star, load star, lode
star, pole star; cynosure.
supervision, superintendence; surveillance, oversight; eye of the
master; control, charge; board of control &c. (council) 696; command &c.
premiership, senatorship; director &c. 694; chair, portfolio.
statesmanship; statecraft, kingcraft[obs3], queencraft[obs3].
ministry, ministration; administration; stewardship,
[person who directs] director &c. 694.
V. direct, manage, govern, conduct; order, prescribe, cut out work
for; bead, lead; lead the way, show the way; take the lead, lead on;
regulate, guide, steer, pilot; tackle
[intransitive] take the helm, be at the helm; have the reins, handle
the reins, hold the reins, take the reins; drive, tool.
superintend, supervise; overlook, control, keep in order, look after,
see to, legislate for; administer, ministrate[obs3]; matronize[obs3]; have
the care of, have the charge of; be in charge of, have charge of, take the
direction; boss, boss one around; pull the strings, pull the wires; rule
&c. (command) 737; have the direction, hold office, hold the portfolio;
preside, preside at the board; take the chair, occupy the chair, be in the
chair; pull the stroke oar.
Adj. directing &c. v.; hegemonic.
Adv. at the helm, at the head of.
#694. Director. -- N. director, manager, governor, rector,
superintendent, supervisor, straw boss.
intendant; overseer, overlooker[obs3]; supercargo[obs3], husband,
inspector, visitor, ranger, surveyor, aedile[obs3]; moderator, monitor,
taskmaster; master &c. 745; leader, ringleader, demagogue, corypheus,
conductor, fugleman[obs3], precentor[obs3], bellwether, agitator;
caporal[obs3], choregus[obs3], collector, file leader, flugelman[obs3],
guiding star &c. (guidance) 693; adviser &c. 695; guide &c.
(information) 527; pilot; helmsman; steersman, steermate[obs3]; wire-
driver, whip, Jehu, charioteer; coachman, carman, cabman; postilion,
vetturino[obs3], muleteer, arriero[obs3], teamster; whipper in.
head, head man, head center, boss; principal, president, speaker;
chair, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson; captain &c. (master) 745;
superior; mayor &c. (civil authority) 745; vice president, prime minister,
premier, vizier, grand vizier, eparch[obs3].
officer, functionary, minister, official, red-tapist[obs3],
bureaucrat; man in office, Jack in office; office bearer; person in
authority &c. 745.
statesman, strategist, legislator, lawgiver, politician, statist|!,
statemonger[obs3]; Minos, Draco; arbiter &c. (judge) 967; boss [U.S.],
board &c. (council) 696.
secretary, secretary of state; Reis Effendi; vicar &c. (deputy) 759;
steward, factor; agent &c. 758; bailiff, middleman; foreman, clerk of
works; landreeve[obs3]; factotum, major-domo[obs3], seneschal, housekeeper,
shepherd, croupier; proctor, procurator.
Adv. ex officio.
#695. Advice. -- N. advice, counsel, adhortation|; word to the wise;
suggestion, submonition|, recommendation, advocacy; advisement.
exhortation &c. (persuasion) 615; expostulation &c. (dissuasion) 616;
admonition &c. (warning) 668; guidance &c. (direction) 693.
instruction, charge, injunction, obtestation[obs3]; Governor's
message, President's message; King's message, Queen's speech; message,
speech from the throne.
adviser, prompter; counsel, counselor; monitor, mentor, Nestor, magnus
Apollo[Lat][obs3], senator; teacher &c. 540.
guide, manual, chart &c. (information) 527.
physician, doctor, leech|!, archiater[obs3].
arbiter &c. (judge) 967.
reference, referment[obs3]; consultation, conference, pourparler.
V. advise, counsel; give advice, give counsel, give a piece of
advice[Fr]; suggest, prompt, submonish[obs3], recommend, prescribe,
advocate; exhort &c. (persuade) 615.
enjoin, enforce, charge, instruct, call; call upon &c. (request) 765;
expostulate &c. (dissuade) 616; admonish &c. (warn) 668.
advise with; lay heads together, consult together; compare notes; hold
a council, deliberate, be closeted with.
confer, consult, refer to, call in; take advice, follow advice; be
advised by, have at one's elbow, take one's cue from.
Adj. recommendatory; hortative &c. (persuasive) 615; dehortatory &c.
(dissuasive) 616[obs3]; admonitory &c. (warning) 668.
Int. go to!
Phr. "give every man thine ear but few thy voice" [Hamlet]; "I pray
thee cease thy counsel" [Much Ado About Nothing]; "my guide, philosopher,
and friend" [Pope]; "'twas good advice and meant, my son be good" [Crabbe];
verbum sat sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; vive memor
leti[Lat]; "we, ask advice but we mean approbation" [Colton].
<-- p. 225 -->
#696. Council. -- N. council, committee, subcommittee, comitia[Lat],
court, chamber, cabinet, board, bench, staff.
senate, senatus[Lat], parliament, chamber of deputies, directory,
reichsrath[Ger], rigsdag, cortes[Sp], storthing[obs3], witenagemote[obs3],
junta, divan, musnud[obs3], sanhedrim; classis[obs3]; Amphictyonic
council[obs3]; duma[Russ], house of representatives; legislative assembly,
legislative council; riksdag[obs3], volksraad[Ger], witan[obs3],
caput[obs3], consistory, chapter, syndicate; court of appeal &c. (tribunal)
966; board of control, board of works; vestry; county council, local board.
audience chamber, council chamber, state chamber.
cabinet council, privy council; cockpit, convocation, synod, congress,
convention, diet, states-general.
[formal gathering of members of a council: script] assembly, caucus,
conclave, clique, conventicle; meeting, sitting, seance, conference,
convention, exhibition, session, palaver, pourparler, durbar[obs3], house;
quorum; council fire [N.Am.], powwow [U.S.], primary [U.S.].
meeting, assemblage &c. 72.
[person who is member of a council] member; senator; member of
parliament, M.P.; councilor, representative of the people; assemblyman,
congressman; councilman, councilwoman, alderman, freeholder.
V. assemble, gather together, meet (assemblage) 72; confer, caucus,
hold council; huddle [coll.].
Adj. senatorial, curule[obs3]; congressional, parliamentary;
legislative, law-making; regulatory; deliberative.
#697. Precept. -- N. precept, direction, instruction, charge;
prescript, prescription; recipe, receipt; golden rule; maxim &c. 496.
rule, canon, law, code, corpus juris[Lat], lex scripta[Lat], act,
statute, rubric, stage direction, regulation; form, formula, formulary;
technicality; canon law; norm.
order &c. (command) 741.
#698. Skill. -- N. skill, skillfulness, address; dexterity,
dexterousness; adroitness, expertness &c. adj.; proficiency, competence,
technical competence, craft, callidity[obs3], facility, knack, trick,
sleight; mastery, mastership, excellence, panurgy[obs3]; ambidexterity,
ambidextrousness[obs3]; sleight of hand &c. (deception) 545.
seamanship, airmanship, marksmanship, horsemanship; rope-dancing.
accomplishment, acquirement, attainment; art, science; technicality,
technology; practical knowledge, technical knowledge.
knowledge of the world, world wisdom, savoir faire[Fr]; tact; mother
wit &c. (sagacity) 498; discretion &c. *(caution) 864; finesse; craftiness
&c. (cunning) 702; management &c. (conduct) 692; self-help.
cleverness, talent, ability, ingenuity, capacity, parts, talents,
faculty, endowment, forte, turn, gift, genius; intelligence &c. 498;
sharpness, readiness &c. (activity) 682; invention &c. 515; aptness,
aptitude; turn for, capacity for, genius for; felicity, capability, curiosa
felicitas[Lat], qualification, habilitation.
proficient &c. 700.
masterpiece, coup de maitre[Fr], chef d'euvre[Fr], tour de force; good
stroke &c. (plan) 626.
V. be skillful &c. adj.; excel in, be master of; have a turn for &c.
know what's what, know a hawk from a handsaw, know what one is about,
know on which side one's bread is buttered, know what's o'clock; have cut
one's eye teeth, have cut one's wisdom teeth.
see one's way, see where the wind lies, see which way the wind blows;
have all one's wits about one, have one's hand in; savoir vivre[Fr]; scire
quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent[Lat][obs3].
look after the main chance; cut one's coat according to one's cloth;
live by one's wits; exercise one's discretion, feather the oar, sail near
the wind; stoop to conquer &c. (cunning) 702; play one's cards well, play
one's best card; hit the right nail on the head, put the saddle on the
take advantage of, make the most of; profit by &e. (use) 677; make a
hit &c. (succeed) 731; make a virtue of necessity; make hay while the sun
shines &c. (occasion) 134.
Adj. skillful, dexterous, adroit, expert, apt, handy, quick, deft,
ready, gain; slick, smart &c. (active) 682; proficient, good at, up to, at
home in, master of, a good hand at, au fait, thoroughbred, masterly, crack,
accomplished; conversant &c. (knowing) 490.
experienced, practiced, skilled, hackneyed; up in, well up in; in
practice, in proper cue; competent, efficient, qualified, capable, fitted,
fit for, up to the mark, trained, initiated, prepared, primed, finished.
clever, cute, able, ingenious, felicitous, gifted, talented, endowed;
inventive &c. 515; shrewd, sharp, on the ball &c. (intelligent) 498;
cunning &c. 702; alive to, up to snuff, not to be caught with chaff;
neat-handed, fine-fingered, nimble-fingered, ambidextrous, sure-
footed; cut out for, fitted for.
technical, artistic, scientific, daedalian[obs3], shipshape; workman-
like, business-like, statesman-like.
Adv. skillfully &c. adj.; well &c. 618; artistically; with skill,
with consummate skill; secundum artem[Lat], suo Marte; to the best of one's
abilities &c. (exertion) 686.
Phr. ars celare artem[Lat]; artes honorabit[Lat]; celui qui veut
celui-la peut[Fr]; c'est une grande habilite que de savoir cacher
sonhabilite[Fr]; expertus metuit [Lat][Horace]; es bildet ein Talent sich
in der Stille sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt[Ger]; "heart to
conceive the understanding to direct, or the hand to execute" [Junius]; if
you have lemons, make lemonade.
<-- p. 226 -->
#699. Unskillfulness. -- N. unskillfulness &c. adj.; want of skill &c.
698; incompetence, incompentency[obs3]; inability, infelicity,
indexterity[obs3], inexperience; disqualification, unproficiency[obs3];
folly, stupidity &c. 499; indiscretion &c. (rashness) 863;
thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458 (neglect) 460; sabotage.
mismanagement, misconduct; impolicy[obs3]; maladministration; misrule,
misgovernment, misapplication, misdirection, misfeasance; petticoat
absence of rule, rule of thumb; bungling &c. v.; failure &c. 732;
screw loose; too many cooks.
blunder &c. (mistake) 495; etourderie gaucherie[Fr], act of folly,
balourdise[obs3]; botch, botchery[obs3]; bad job, sad work.
sprat sent out to catch a whale, much ado about nothing, wild-goose
bungler &c. 701; fool &c. 501.
V. be unskillful &c. adj.; not see an inch beyond one's nose; blunder,
bungle, boggle, fumble, botch, bitch, flounder, stumble, trip; hobble &c.
275; put one's foot in it; make a mess of, make hash of, make sad work of;
overshoot the mark.
play tricks with, play Puck, mismanage, misconduct, misdirect,
stultify oneself, make a fool of oneself, commit oneself; act
foolishly; play the fool; put oneself out of court; lose control, lose
control of oneself, lose one's head, lose one's cunning.
begin at the wrong end; do things by halves &c. (not complete) 730;
make two bites of a cherry; play at cross purposes; strain at a gnat and
swallow a camel &c. (caprice) 608; put the cart before the horse; lock the
stable door when the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135.
not know what one is about, not know one's own interest, not know on
which side one's bread is buttered; stand in one's own light, quarrel with
one's bread and butter, throw a stone in one's own garden, kill the goose
which lays the golden eggs, pay dear for one's whistle, cut one's own
throat, bum one's fingers; knock one's head against a stone wall, beat
one's head against a stone wall; fall into a trap, catch a Tartar, bring
the house about one's ears; have too many eggs in one basket (imprudent)
863, have too many irons in the fire.
mistake &c. 495; take the shadow for the substance &c. (credulity)
486; bark up the wrong tree; be in the wrong box, aim at a pigeon and kill
a crow; take the wrong pig by the tail, get the wrong pig by the tail, get
the wrong sow by the ear, get the dirty end of the stick; put the saddle on
the wrong horse, put a square peg into a round hole, put new wine into old
cut blocks with a razor; hold a farthing candle to the sun &c.
(useless) 645; fight with a shadow, grasp at a shadow; catch at straws,
lean on a broken reed, reckon without one's host, pursue a wild goose
chase; go on a fool's goose chase, sleeveless errand; go further and fare
worse; lose one's way, miss one's way; fail &c. 732.
Adj. unskillful &c. 698; inexpert; bungling &c.v.; awkward, clumsy,
unhandy, lubberly, gauche, maladroit; left-handed, heavy-handed; slovenly,
adrift, at fault.
inapt, unapt; inhabile[Fr]; untractable[obs3], unteachable; giddy &c.
(inattentive) 458; inconsiderate &c. (neglectful) 460; stupid &c. 499;
inactive &c. 683; incompetent; unqualified, disqualified, ill-qualified;
unfit; quackish; raw, green, inexperienced, rusty, out of practice.
unaccustomed, unused, untrained &c. 537, uninitiated, unconversant &c.
(ignorant) 491[obs3]; shiftless; unstatesmanlike.
unadvised; ill-advised, misadvised; ill-devised, ill-imagined, ill-
judged, ill-contrived, ill-conducted; unguided, misguided; misconducted,
foolish, wild; infelicitous; penny wise and pound foolish &c.