Monday, May 25, 2009

#313 - #474


rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve[obs3];
circulate; gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, pirouette; twirl, trundle, troll,
roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top, spin
like a teetotum|!.
[of an automobile] spin out.
Adj. rotating &c.v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory[obs3],
trochilic[obs3], vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose[obs3].
Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

<-- most of this should go under change (make a 146a)... develop not in
change section!!
revolution, evolution. revolution = change = #146-->
#313. [Motion in the reverse circle.] Evolution. -- N. evolution,
unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c. (inversion)
V. evolve; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine,
unravel; untangle, disentangle; develop.
Adj. evolving &c. v.; evolved &c. v.

<-- p. 93 -->

#314. [Reciprocating motion, motion to and fro.] Oscillation. -- N.
oscillation; vibration, libration; motion of a pendulum; nutation;
undulation; pulsation; pulse.
alternation; coming and going &c. v.; ebb and flow, flux and reflux,
ups and down.
fluctuation; vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605.
wave, vibratiuncle[obs3], swing, beat, shake, wag, seesaw, dance,
lurch, dodge; logan[obs3], loggan[obs3], rocking-stone, vibroscope[obs3].
V. oscillate; vibrate, librate[obs3]; alternate, undulate, wave; rock,
swing; pulsate, beat; wag, waggle; nod, bob, courtesy, curtsy; tick; play;
wamble[obs3], wabble[obs3]; dangle, swag.
fluctuate, dance, curvet, reel, quake; quiver, quaver; shake, flicker;
wriggle; roll, toss, pitch; flounder, stagger, totter; move up and down,
bob up and down &c. Adv.; pass and repass, ebb and flow, come and go;
vacillate &c. 605; teeter [U.S.].
brandish, shake, flourish.
Adj. oscillating &c. v.; oscillatory, undulatory, pulsatory[obs3],
libratory, rectilinear; vibratory, vibratile[obs3]; pendulous.
Adv. to and fro, up and down, backwards and forwards, hither and yon,
seesaw, zigzag, wibble-wabble[obs3], in and out, from side to side, like
buckets in a well.

#315. [Irregular motion] Agitation. -- N. agitation, stir, tremor,
shake, ripple, jog, jolt, jar, jerk, shock, succussion[obs3], trepidation,
quiver, quaver, dance; jactitation|, quassation|; shuffling 7c. v.;
twitter, flicker, flutter.
turbulence, perturbation; commotion, turmoil, disquiet; tumult,
tumultuation|; hubbub, rout, bustle, fuss, racket, subsultus[obs3],
staggers, megrims, epilepsy, fits; carphology[obs3], chorea,
floccillation[obs3], the jerks, St. Vitus's dance, tilmus[obs3].
spasm, throe, throb, palpitation, convulsion.
disturbance, chaos &c. (disorder) 59; restlessness &c.
(changeableness) 149.
ferment, fermentation; ebullition, effervescence, hurly-burly,
cahotage[obs3]; tempest, storm, ground swell, heavy sea, whirlpool, vortex
&c. 312; whirlwind &c. (wind) 349.
V. be agitated &c.; shake; tremble, tremble like an aspen leaf;
quiver, quaver, quake, shiver, twitter, twire[obs3], writhe, toss, shuffle,
tumble, stagger, bob, reel, sway, wag, waggle; wriggle, wriggle like an
eel; dance, stumble, shamble, flounder, totter, flounce, flop, curvet,
prance, cavort [U.S.]; squirm.
throb, pulsate, beat, palpitate, go pitapat; flutter, flitter,
flicker, bicker; bustle.
ferment, effervesce, foam; boil, boil over; bubble up; simmer.
toss about, jump about; jump like a parched pea; shake like an aspen
leaf; shake to its center, shake to its foundations; be the sport of the
winds and waves; reel to and fro like a drunken man; move from post to
pillar and from pillar to post, drive from post to pillar and from pillar
to post, keep between hawk and buzzard.
agitate, shake, convulse, toss, tumble, bandy, wield, brandish, flap,
flourish, whisk, jerk, hitch, jolt; jog, joggle, jostle, buffet, hustle,
disturb, stir, shake up, churn, jounce, wallop, whip, vellicate[obs3].
Adj. shaking &c. v.; agitated, tremulous; desultory, subsultory|;
saltatoric[obs3]; quasative[obs3]; shambling; giddy-paced, saltatory[obs3],
convulsive, unquiet, restless, all of a twitter.
Adv. by fits and starts; subsultorily| &c. adj[obs3].; per
saltum[Lat]; hop skip and jump; in convulsions, in fits.
Phr. tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].

<-- p. 94 -->


#316. MATERIALITY. -- N. materiality, materialness; corporeity[obs3],
corporality[obs3]; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood,
plenum; physical condition.
matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle,
parenchyma[Biol], material, substratum, hyle[obs3], corpus, pabulum; frame.
object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones;
materials &c. 635.
[Science of matter] physics; somatology[obs3], somatics; natural
philosophy, experimental philosophy; physicism[obs3]; physical science,
philosophie positive[Fr], materialism; materialist; physicist;
somatism[obs3], somatist[obs3].
Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic,
somatoscopic[obs3]; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial.
objective, impersonal, nonsubjective[obs3], neuter, unspiritual,

#317. Immateriality. -- N. immateriality, immaterialness;
incorporeity[obs3], spirituality; inextension[obs3]; astral plane.
personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c. (soul) 450; astral body;
immaterialism[obs3]; spiritualism, spiritualist.
V. disembody, spiritualize.
Adj. immaterial, immateriate[obs3]; incorporeal, incorporal[obs3];
incorporate, unfleshly[obs3]; supersensible[obs3]; asomatous[obs3],
unextended[obs3]; unembodied[obs3], disembodied; extramundane, unearthly;
pneumatoscopic[obs3]; spiritual &c. (psychical) 450[obs3].
personal, subjective, nonobjective.

#318. World. -- N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe,
wide world; cosmos; kosmos[obs3]; terraqueous globe[obs3], sphere;
macrocosm, megacosm[obs3]; music of the spheres.
heavens, sky, welkin|, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry
host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions[obs3]; varuna; vault of
heaven, canopy of heaven; celestial spaces.
heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way,
galactic circle, via lactea[Lat], ame no kawa [Jap.].
sun, orb of day, Apollo[obs3], Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere;
solar system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night,
Diana, silver-footed queen; aerolite[obs3], meteor; planetary ring; falling
star, shooting star; meteorite, uranolite[obs3].
constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles's wain, Big
Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion's belt,
Cassiopea's chair, Pleiades.
colures[obs3], equator, ecliptic, orbit.
[Science of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranography, uranology[obs3];
cosmology, cosmography[obs3], cosmogony; eidouranion[obs3], orrery; geodesy
&c. (measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer[obs3]; astronomer;
observatory; planetarium.
Adj. cosmic, cosmical[obs3]; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious|,
terraqueous[obs3], terrene, terreous|, telluric, earthly, geotic[obs3],
under the sun; sublunary[obs3], subastral[obs3].
solar, heliacal[obs3]; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery[obs3];
starry, stellar; sidereal, sideral[obs3]; astral; nebular; uranic.
Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here below, under the
Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht[Ger]; "earth is but the
frozen echo of the silent voice of God" [Hageman]; "green calm below, blue
quietness above" [Whittier]; "hanging in a golden chain this pendant World"
[Paradise Lost]; "nothing in nature is unbeautiful" [Tennyson]; "silently
as a dream the fabric rose" [Cowper]; "some touch of nature's genial glow"
[Scott]; "this majestical roof fretted with golden fire" [Hamlet]; "through
knowledge we behold the World's creation" [Spenser].

<-- p. 95 -->

#319. Gravity. -- N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c. adj.;
specific gravity; pondorosity[obs3], pressure, load; burden, burthen[obs3];
ballast, counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.
lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.
weighing, ponderation[obs3], trutination|; weights; avoirdupois
weight, troy weight, apothecaries' weight; grain, scruple, drachma[obs3],
ounce, pound, lb, arroba[obs3], load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long
ton, metric ton, quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod[obs3].
[metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram;
nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.
[Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam,
weighbridge[obs3]; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical
balance, two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.
[Science of gravity] statics.
V. be heavy &c. adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.
[Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.
Adj. weighty; weighing &c. v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable;
lumpish[obs3], lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.
incumbent, superincumbent[obs3].

#320. Levity. -- N. levity; lightness &c. adj.; imponderability,
buoyancy, volatility.
feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer,
straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.
leaven, ferment, barm[obs3], yeast.
lighter-than-air balloon, helium balloon, hydrogen balloon, hot air
convection, thermal draft, thermal.
V. be light &c. adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.
render light &c. adj.; lighten, leaven.
Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous[obs3], imponderable;
astatic[obs3], weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose[obs3],
suberous[obs3]; uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c. v.; portable.
light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air; lighter than
air; rise like a balloon, float like a balloon.

1. Solid Matter

#321. Density.. -- N. density, solidity; solidness &c. adj.;
impenetrability, impermeability; incompressibility; imporosity[obs3];
cohesion &c. 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude|.
specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer[obs3].
condensation; caseation[obs3]; solidation[obs3], solidification;
consolidation; concretion, coagulation; petrification &c. (hardening) 323;
crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate; inspissation[obs3];
gelation, thickening &c. v.
indivisibility, indiscerptibility[obs3], insolubility,
solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete,
conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle, cartilage;
casein, crassamentum|; legumin[obs3].
superdense matter, condensed states of matter; dwarf star, neutron
V. be dense &c. adj.; become solid, render solid &c. adj.; solidify,
solidate[obs3]; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate;
curd, curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit, cohere,
crystallize; petrify &c. (harden) 323.
condense, thicken, gel, inspissate[obs3], incrassate[obs3]; compress,
squeeze, ram down, constipate.
Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c. v.; caseous; pukka[obs3]; coherent,
cohesive &c. 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive,
lumpish[obs3]; impenetrable, impermeable, nonporous, imporous[obs3];
incompressible; constipated; concrete &c. (hard) 323; knotted, knotty;
gnarled; crystalline, crystallizable; thick, grumous|, stuffy.
undissolved, unmelted[obs3], unliquefied[obs3], unthawed[obs3].
indivisible, indiscerptible[obs3], infrangible[obs3],
indissolvable[obs3], indissoluble, insoluble, infusible.

#322. Rarity. -- N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c. 321;
subtility[obs3]; subtilty[obs3], subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.
rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization[obs3].
vaporization, evaporation, diffusion, gassification[obs3].
ether &c. (gas) 334.
V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize[obs3].
Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight;
light &c. 320; cavernous, spongy &c. (hollow) 252.
rarefied &c. v.; unsubstantial; uncompact[obs3], incompressed[obs3];

<-- p. 96 -->

#323. Hardness. -- N. hardness &c. adj.; rigidity; renitence[obs3],
renitency; inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity [obs3].
induration, petrifaction; lapidification[obs3], lapidescence[obs3];
vitrification, ossification; crystallization.
stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz,
granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block, board,
deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought iron; nail;
brick, concrete; cement.
V. render hard &c. adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper,
ossify, vitrify; accrust[obs3].
Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark,
unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate, indurated;
gritty, proof.
adamant, adamantine, adamantean[obs3]; concrete, stony, granitic,
calculous, lithic[obs3], vitreous; horny, corneous[obs3]; bony; osseous,
ossific[obs3]; cartilaginous; hard as a rock &c. n.; stiff as buckram,
stiff as a poker; stiff as starch, stiff as a board.

#324. Softness. -- N. softness, pliableness &c. adj.; flexibility;
pliancy, pliability; sequacity[obs3], malleability; ductility,
tractility[obs3]; extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity,
flaccidity, laxity.
clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion, pillow,
feather bed, down, padding, wadding; foam.
mollification; softening &c.v.
V. render -soft &c. adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper;
mash, knead, squash.
bend, yield, relent, relax, give.
Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe,
lithesome; lissom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile[obs3], tractable;
malleable, extensile, sequacious[obs3], inelastic; aluminous[obs3];
yielding &c. v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.
doughy, spongy, penetrable, foamy, cushiony[obs3].
flaccid, flocculent, downy; edematous, oedematous[obs3],
medullary[Anat], argillaceous, mellow.
soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax, tender as

#325. Elasticity. -- N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience,
renitency, buoyancy.
rubber, India(n) rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone, gum elastic,
baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-S, plastic.
flexibility, Young's modulus.
V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c. adj.; bounce, spring
back &c. (recoil) 277.
Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant;
ductile, stretchable, extendable.
Phr. the stress is proportional to the strain.

#326. Inelasticity. -- N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity
&c. 325; inelasticity &c. (softness) 324,
Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c. (soft) 324;

#327. Tenacity. -- N. {ant. 328} tenacity, toughness, strength;
(cohesion) 46; grip, grasp, stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity[obs3];
stubbornness &c. (obstinacy); glue, cement, glutinousness[obs3],
sequaciousness[obs3], viscidity, (semiliquidity) 352.
leather; white leather, whitleather[obs3]; gristle, cartilage.
unbreakability, tensile strength.
V. be tenacious &c. adj.; resist fracture.
grip, grasp, stick (cohesion) 46.
Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious[obs3], stringy,
gristly cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous[obs3], tough as
whitleather[obs3]; stubborn &c. (obstinate) 606.
unbreakable, indivisible; atomic.

#328. Brittleness. -- N. {ant. 327} brittleness &c. adj.; fragility,
friability, frangibility, fissibility[obs3]; house of cards, house of
V. be brittle &c. adj.; live in a glass house.
break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short,
burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust.
Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], breakable, weak, frangible, fragile,
frail, gimcrack|, shivery, fissile; splitting &c. v.; lacerable[obs3],
splintery, crisp, crimp, short, brittle as glass.

#329. [Structure.] Texture. -- N. structure (form) 240, organization,
anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass,
architecture; stratification, cleavage.
substance, stuff, compages[obs3], parenchyma[Biol]; constitution,
staple, organism.
[Science of structures] organography[obs3], osteology, myology,
splanchnology[obs3], neurology, angiography[obs3], adeology[obs3];
angiography[obs3], adenography[obs3].
texture, surface texture; intertexture[obs3], contexture[obs3];
tissue, grain, web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c.
(roughness) 256; flatness (smoothness) 255; fineness of grain; coarseness
of grain, dry goods.
silk, satin; muslin, burlap.
[Science of textures] histology.
Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.
textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate,
subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.
rough, gritty; smooth.
smooth as silk, smooth as satin.

<-- p. 97 -->

#330. Pulverulence. -- N. powderiness[obs3][State of powder.],
pulverulence[obs3]; sandiness &c. adj.; efflorescence; friability.
powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour, farina,
rice, paddy, spore, sporule[obs3]; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c.
(smallness) 32; limature|, filings, debris, detritus, tailings, talus
slope, scobs[obs3], magistery[obs3], fine powder; flocculi[Lat].
smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of smoke,
volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm.
[Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution[obs3], attenuation,
granulation, disintegration, subaction[obs3], contusion, trituration[Chem],
levigation[obs3], abrasion, detrition, multure[obs3]; limitation;
tripsis[obs3]; filing &c.v..
[Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra[obs3], gristmill,
grater, rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder,
grindstone, kern[obs3], quern[obs3], koniology[obs3].
V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c.
reduce to powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate,
triturate, levigate[obs3]; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate,
rasp, pound, bray, bruise; contuse, contund[obs3]; beat, crush,
cranch[obs3], craunch[obs3], crunch, scranch[obs3], crumble, disintegrate;
attenuate &c. 195.
Adj. powdery, pulverulent[obs3], granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous,
branny[obs3], furfuraceous[obs3], flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous[obs3],
psammous[obs3]; arenose[obs3], arenarious[obs3], arenaceous[obs3]; gritty,
efflorescent, impalpable; lentiginous[obs3], lepidote[obs3],
sabuline[obs3]; sporaceous[obs3], sporous[obs3].
pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c. v.;
attrite[obs3]; in pieces.

#331. Friction. -- N. friction, attrition; rubbing, abrasion, scraping
&c. v.; confrication|, detrition, contrition|, affriction[obs3], abrasion,
arrosion|, limature|, frication[obs3], rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage;
roughness &c. 256.
rolling friction, sliding friction, starting friction.
V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry,
scour, polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c. (reduce to powder)
set one's teeth on edge; rosin.
Adj. anatriptic[obs3]; attrite[obs3].

#332. [Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.] Lubrication. --
N. smoothness &c. 255; unctuousness &c. 355.
lubrication, lubrification[obs3]; anointment; oiling &c. v.
synovia[Anat]; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c. 356;
saliva; lather.
V. lubricate, lubricitate|; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.
Adj. lubricated &c. v.; lubricous.

Fluids in General

#333. Fluidity. -- N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c. adj[obs3].;
gaseity &c. 334[obs3].
fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap,
serum, blood, serosity[obs3], gravy, rheum, ichor[obs3], sanies[obs3];
solubility, solubleness[obs3].
[Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics.
V. be fluid &c. adj.; flow &c. (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt,
condense &c. 335.
Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous[obs3];
fluent &c. (flowing) 348.
liquefied &c. 335; uncongealed; soluble.

#334. Gaseity. -- N. gaseity[obs3]; vaporousness &c. adj.; flatulence,
flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerification.
elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek,
effluvium, flatus; cloud &c. 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas[obs3]; volatile
alkali; vacuum, partial vacuum.
[Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics[obs3];
aerostatics[obs3], aerodynamics.
gasmeter[obs3], gasometer[obs3]; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound
(of a fish).
V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c. 336; diffuse.
Adj. gaseous, aeriform[obs3], ethereal, aerial, airy, vaporous,
volatile, evaporable[obs3], flatulent.

<-- p. 98 -->

#335. Liquefaction. -- N. liquefaction; liquescence[obs3],
liquescency[obs3]; melting &c. (heat) 384; colliquation|, colliquefaction|;
thaw; liquation|, deliquation|, deliquescence; lixiviation[obs3],
solution, apozem[obs3], lixivium[obs3], infusion, flux.
solvent, menstruum, alkahest[obs3].
V. render liquid &c. 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c. (heat)
384; solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate|; hold in solution; condense,
precipitate, rain.
Adj. liquefied &c. v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble,

#336. Vaporization. -- N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification,
evaporation, vaporation[obs3]; distillation, cupellation[Chem], cohobation,
sublimination[obs3], exhalation; volatility.
vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steaming; bay salt, chloride of
mister, spray.
bubble, effervescence.
V. render -gaseous &c. 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime;
evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam,
fumigate; cohobate[obs3]; finestill[obs3].
bubble, sparge, effervesce, boil.
Adj. volatilized &c. v.; reeking &c. v.; volatile; evaporable[obs3],
bubbly, effervescent, boiling.

Specific Fluids

#337. Water. -- N. water; serum, serosity[obs3]; lymph; rheum;
diluent; agua[Sp], aqua, pani[obs3].
dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c. v.; immersion|,
humectation[obs3], infiltration, spargefaction|, affusion[obs3],
irrigation, douche, balneation[obs3], bath.
deluge &c. (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide.
V. be watery &c. adj.; reek.
add water, water, wet; moisten &c. 339; dilute, dip, immerse; merge;
immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep, macerate,
pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse[obs3], splash, swash, douse,
drench; dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge; syringe, inject,
Adj. watery, aqueous, aquatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal[obs3],
diluent; drenching &c. v.; diluted &c. v.; weak; wet &c. (moist) 339.
Phr. the waters are out.

#338. Air. -- N. air &c. (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air;
atmosphere; aerosphere[obs3].
open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c. 353.
weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.
[Science of air] aerology, aerometry[obs3], aeroscopy[obs3],
aeroscopy[obs3], aerography[obs3]; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics;
eudioscope[obs3], baroscope[obs3], aeroscope[obs3], eudiometer[obs3],
barometer, aerometer[obs3]; aneroid, baroscope[obs3]; weather gauge,
weather glass, weather cock.
exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation;
aerostation[obs3], aeronautics, aeronaut.
V. air, ventilate, fan &c. (wind) 349.
Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c. 349.
atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform[obs3]; meteorological;
Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile[Fr], al fresco; sub jove

#339. Moisture. -- N. moisture; moistness &c. adj.; humidity,
humectation[obs3]; madefaction|, dew; serein[obs3]; marsh &c. 345;
hygrometry, hygrometer.
V. moisten, wet; humect[obs3], humectate[obs3]; sponge, damp, bedew;
imbue, imbrue, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c. (water) 337.
be moist &c. adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c. (exude) 295.
Adj. moist, damp; watery &c. 337; madid[obs3], roric[obs3];
undried[obs3], humid, sultry, wet, dank, luggy[obs3], dewy; roral|, rorid|;
roscid[obs3]; juicy.
wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c. v.
swashy[obs3], soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking, soft, sodden,
sloppy, muddy; swampy &c. (marshy) 345; irriguous[obs3].

#340. Dryness. -- N. dryness &c. adj.; siccity[obs3], aridity,
drought, ebb tide, low water.
exsiccation|, desiccation; arefaction|, dephlegmation|, drainage;
[CHEMSUB which renders dry] desiccative, dessicator.
[device to render dry] dessicator; hair drier, clothes drier, gas
drier, electric drier; vacuum oven, drying oven, kiln; lyophilizer.
V. be dry &c. adj..
[transitive] render dry &c. adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge, swab,
wipe; drain.
desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate[obs3]; parch.
kiln dry; vacuum dry, blow dry, oven dry; hang out to dry.
be fine, hold up.
Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust[obs3], arescent|; dried &c. v.;
undamped; juiceless[obs3], sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain,
fine; dry as a bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a
water proof, water tight.
dehydrated, dessicated.

<-- p. 99 -->

#341. Ocean -- N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves,
billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, "vasty deep"; wave,
tide, &c. (water in motion) 348.
hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton, Naiad,
Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.
Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing;
hydrographic; bathybic[obs3], cotidal[obs3].
Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

#342. Land. -- N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.
continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese[Fr], delta; tongue of land,
neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c. (projection) 250; highland &c.
(height) 206.
coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard,
seaside, seabank[obs3], seacoast, seabeach[obs3]; ironbound coast; loom of
the land; derelict; innings; alluvium, alluvion[obs3]; ancon.
riverbank, river bank, levee.
soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge[obs3], chalk, gravel, mold,
subsoil, clod, clot; rock, crag.
acres; real estate &c. (property) 780; landsman[obs3].
V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land;
come ashore, go ashore, debark.
Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian;
alluvial; terrene &c. (world) 318; landed, predial[obs3], territorial;
geophilous[obs3]; ripicolous.
Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

#343. Gulf. Lake -- N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph[obs3],
bay, inlet, bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet;
frith[obs3], firth, ostiary|, mouth; lagune[obs3], lagoon; indraught[obs3];
cove, creek; natural harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt,
gut, kyles[obs3]; continental slope, continental shelf.
lake, loch, lough[obs3], mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool,
lin[obs3], puddle, slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water,
sheet of water; fish pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c.
(store) 636; alberca[obs3], barachois[obs3], hog wallow [U.S.].
Adj. lacustrine[obs3].

#344. Plain. -- N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open
country, champaign country[obs3]; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert,
wild, steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold[obs3], veldt;
moor, moorland; bush; plateau &c. (level) 213; campagna[obs3]; alkali flat,
llano; mesa, mesilla [obs3][U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling
prairie; vega[Sp].
meadow, mead, haugh[obs3], pasturage, park, field, lawn, green, plat,
plot, grassplat[obs3], greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley,
lay; grounds; maidan[obs3], agostadero[obs3].
Adj. champaign[obs3], alluvial; campestral[obs3], campestrial[obs3],
campestrian[obs3], campestrine[obs3].

#345. Marsh. -- N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish[obs3], moss, fen, bog,
quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [obs3][U.S.],
cienaga[obs3], jhil[obs3], vlei[obs3].
Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy[obs3], poachy[obs3],
quaggy[obs3], soft; muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal[obs3]; moorish, moory;

#346. Island. -- N. island, isle, islet, eyot[obs3], ait[obs3],
holf[obs3], reef, atoll, breaker; archipelago; islander.
Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic[obs3].

<-- p. 100 -->
Fluids in Motion

#347. [Fluid in motion.] Stream. -- N. stream &c. (of water) 348, (of
air) 349.
V. flow &c. 348; blow &c. 349.

#348. [Water in motion.] River. -- N. running water.
jet, spirt[obs3], spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet
d'eau[Fr]; sluice.
water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss[obs3]; lin[obs3],
linn[obs3]; ghyll[obs3], Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe|,
cataclysm; debacle, inundation, deluge; chute, washout.
rain, rainfall; serein[obs3]; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain,
drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology[obs3], hyetography[obs3];
predominance of Aquarius[obs3], reign of St. Swithin; mizzle[obs3],
drizzle, stillicidum[obs3], plash; dropping &c. v.; falling weather;
northeaster, hurricane, typhoon.
stream, course, flux, flow, profluence[obs3]; effluence &c. (egress)
295; defluxion[obs3]; flowing &c. v.; current, tide, race, coulee.
spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill, gullet,
rillet[obs3]; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike[obs3], burn,
beck, creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary.
geyser, spout, waterspout.
body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide, high
tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre[obs3], hygre[obs3]; fresh,
freshet; indraught[obs3], reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge[obs3],
whirlpool, Maelstrom, regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation|.
wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; gelasma/gr>[obs3][Grk]; beach comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell,
surf, breakers, white horses, whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas,
cross sea, long sea, short sea, chopping sea.
[Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics,
hydraulicostatics[obs3]; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology[obs3].
irrigation &c. (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart;
hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti[obs3], mussuk[obs3].
V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue;
drop, drip, dribble, plash, spirtle[obs3], trill, trickle, distill,
percolate; stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash;
guggle[obs3], murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgle, sputter, spurt, spray,
regurgitate; ooze, flow out &c. (egress) 295.
rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks; pour
with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle[obs3].
flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself,
[Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c. (discharge) 297; shower down,
irrigate, drench &c. (wet) 337; spill, splash.
[Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c. (close) 261; obstruct &c. 706.
Adj. fluent; diffluent[obs3], profluent[obs3], affluent; tidal;
flowing &c. v.; meandering, meandry[obs3], meandrous[obs3]; fluvial,
fluviatile; streamy[obs3], showery, rainy, pluvial, stillicidous|;
Phr. "for men may come and men may go but I go on forever" [Tennyson];
"that old man river, he just keeps rolling along" [Showboat].

#349. [Air in motion] Wind. -- N.. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus,
efflation[obs3], eluvium[obs3]; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff,
zephyr; blow, breeze, drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream;
gust, blast, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest, hurricane,
whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon; simoon[obs3],
simoom; harmattan[obs3], monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise[obs3],
tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen
blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia[obs3], chinook, foehn,
khamsin[obs3], norther, vendaval[obs3], wuther[obs3].
windiness &c. adj.; ventosity|; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly
weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare's tail; thick squall, black
squall, white squall.
anemography[obs3], aerodynamics; wind gauge, weathercock, vane,
weather-vane, wind sock; anemometer, anemoscope[obs3].
sufflation[obs3], insufflation[obs3], perflation[obs3], inflation,
afflation[obs3]; blowing, fanning &c. v.; ventilation.
sneezing &c.v.: errhine[obs3]; sternutative[obs3], sternutatory[obs3];
sternutation; hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath.
Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus.
air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator,
punkah[obs3]; branchiae[obs3], gills, flabellum[obs3], vertilabrum[obs3].
whiffle ball.
V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c. n.;
wuther[obs3]; stream, issue.
respire, breathe, puff; whiff, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff, snuffle;
sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough.
fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate|; blow up.
Adj. blowing &c. v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy,
tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c. (violent) 173.
pulmonic[Med], pulmonary.
Phr. "lull'd by soft zephyrs" [Pope]; "the storm is up and all is on
the hazard" [Julius Caesar]; "the winds were wither'd in the stagnant air"
[Byron]; "while mocking winds are piping loud" [Milton]; "winged with red
lightning and tempestuous rage" [Paradise Lost].

<-- p. 101 -->

#350. [Channel for the passage of water.] Conduit. -- N. conduit,
channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito[obs3],
aboideau[obs3], aboiteau[Fr], bito[obs3]; acequia[obs3], acequiador[obs3],
acequiamadre[obs3]; arroyo; adit[obs3], aqueduct, canal, trough, gutter,
pantile; flume, ingate[obs3], runner; lock-weir, tedge[obs3]; vena[obs3];
dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain, sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough,
kennel, siphon; piscina[obs3]; pipe &c. (tube) 260; funnel; tunnel &c.
(passage) 627; water pipe, waste pipe; emunctory[obs3], gully hole, artery,
aorta, pore, spout, scupper; adjutage[obs3], ajutage[obs3]; hose; gargoyle;
gurgoyle[obs3]; penstock, weir; flood gate, water gate; sluice, lock,
valve; rose; waterworks.
Adj. vascular &c. (with holes) 260.

#351. [Channel for the passage of air.] Airpipe. -- N. air pipe, air
tube; airhole[obs3], blowhole, breathinghole[obs3], venthole; shaft, flue,
chimney, funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand[obs3], trachea;
bronchus, bronchia[Med]; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle;
ventiduct[obs3], ventilator; louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe
&c. (wind) 349; pipe &c. (tube) 260; jhilmil[obs3]; smokestack.
screen, window screen.
artificial lung, iron lung, heart and lung machine.


#352. Semiliquidity. -- N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c. adj.;
viscidity, viscosity; gummosity[obs3], glutinosity[obs3], mucosity[obs3];
spissitude[obs3], crassitude[obs3]; lentor[obs3]; adhesiveness &c.
(cohesion) 46.
inspissation[obs3], incrassation[obs3]; thickening.
jelly, mucilage, gelatin, gluten; carlock[obs3], fish glue;
ichthyocol[obs3], ichthycolla[obs3]; isinglass; mucus, phlegm, goo;
pituite[obs3], lava; glair[obs3], starch, gluten, albumen, milk, cream,
protein|!; treacle; gum, size, glue (tenacity) 327; wax, beeswax.
emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c. 339;
marsh &c. 345.
V. inspissate[obs3], incrassate[obs3]; thicken, mash, squash, churn,
beat up.
Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose[obs3]; half melted, half
frozen; milky, muddy &c. n.; lacteal, lactean[obs3], lacteous[obs3],
lactescent[obs3], lactiferous[obs3]; emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent,
gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; glutenous, gelatin,
mastic, amylaceous[obs3], ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous; sticky,
tacky, gooey; slab, slabby[obs3]; lentous|, pituitous[obs3]; mucid[obs3],
muculent[obs3], mucous; gummy.

#353. [Mixture of air and water.] Bubble. [Cloud.] -- N. bubble, foam,
froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm[obs3],
cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger, rack,
nimbus; cumulus, woolpack[obs3], cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus,
cumulostratus; cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare's tale, dirty sky; curl
cloud; frost smoke; thunderhead.
[Science of clouds] nephelognosy[obs3]; nephograph[obs3],
effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c. v.
nebula; cloudliness &c. (opacity) 426[obs3]; nebulosity &c. (dimness)
V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle[obs3], gurgle;
effervesce, ferment, fizzle.
Adj. bubbling &c. v.; frothy, nappy[obs3], effervescent, sparkling,
mousseux[French: frothy], up.
cloudy &c. n.; thunderheaded[obs3]; vaporous, nebulous, overcast.
Phr. "the lowring element scowls o'er the darkened landscip" [Paradise

#354. Pulpiness. -- N. pulpiness &c. adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd,
pap, rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume[obs3].
mush, oatmeal, baby food.
Adj. pulpy &c. n.; pultaceous[obs3], grumous[obs3]; baccate[obs3].

#355. Unctuousness. -- N. unctuousness &c. adj.; unctuosity[obs3],
lubricity; ointment &c. (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c. 332.
V. oil &c. (lubricate) 332.
Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous[obs3];
fat, fatty, greasy; waxy, butyraceous, soapy, saponaceous[obs3], pinguid,
lardaceous[obs3]; slippery.

#356. Oil. -- N. oil, fat, butter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard,
dripping exunge|, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine[Chem], oleagine[obs3];
soap; soft soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere[obs3];
petroleum, mineral, mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil; vegetable
oil, colza oil[obs3], olive oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil,
soybean oil, nut oil; animal oil, neat's foot oil, train oil; ointment,
unguent, liniment; aceite[obs3], amole[obs3], Barbados tar[obs3]; fusel
oil, grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of amyl, ghee[obs3]; heating
oil, "#2 oil", No. 2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet fuel,
gasoline, naphtha; stearin.

<-- p. 102 -->

#356a. Resin. -- N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber,
ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish,
copal[obs3], mastic, magilp[obs3], lacquer, japan.
artificial resin, polymer; ion-exchange resin, cation-exchange resin,
anion exchange resin, water softener, Amberlite[obs3], Dowex[Chem], Diaion.
V. varnish &c. (overlay) 223.
Adj. resiny[obs3], resinous; bituminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic,



Vitality in general

#357. Organization. -- N. organized world, organized nature; living
nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils.
protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c. 329;
organization, organism.
[Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic
chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c. 368; botany; microbiology,
virology, bacteriology, mycology &c. 369; naturalist.
archegenesis &c. (production) 161[obs3]; antherozoid[obs3],
bioplasm[obs3], biotaxy[obs3], chromosome, dysmeromorph[obs3]; ecology,
oecology; erythroblast[Physiol], gametangium[obs3], gamete, germinal
matter, invagination[Biol]; isogamy[obs3], oogamy[obs3]; karyaster[obs3];
macrogamete[obs3], microgamete[obs3]; metabolism, anabolism, catabolism;
metaplasm[obs3], ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation, phylogeny, polymorphism,
protozoa, spermary[obs3], spermatozoon, trophoplasm[obs3], vacuole,
vertebration[obs3], zoogloea[obs3], zygote.
Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.
morphology, taxonomy.
Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic[obs3], unsegmentic[obs3],
vacuolar, zoogloeic[obs3], zoogloeoid[obs3].

#358. Inorganization. -- N. mineral world, mineral kingdom;
unorganized matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.
[Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy[obs3],
geoscopy[obs3]; metallurgy, metallography[obs3]; lithology; oryctology|,
V. turn to dust; mineralize, fossilize.
Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized[obs3]; lithoidal[obs3]; azoic;

#359. Life. -- N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark,
vital flame, soul, spirit.
respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one's nostrils; oxygen,
[devices to sustain respiration] respirator, artificial respirator,
heart and lung machine, iron lung; medical devices &c. 662.
lifeblood; Archeus[obs3]; existence &c. 1.
vivification; vital force; vitalization; revivification &c. 163;
Prometheus; life to come &c. (destiny) 152.
[Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.
nourishment, staff of life &c. (food) 298.
genetics, heredity, inheritance, evolution, natural selection,
reproduction (production) 161.
microbe, aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe,
obligate anaerobe, halophile[Microbiol], methanogen[Microbiol],
archaebacteria[Microb], microaerophile[Microbiol].
animal &c. 366; vegetable &c. 367.
artificial life, robot, robotics, artificial intelligence.
[vital signs] breathing, breathing rate, heartbeat, pulse,
preservation of life, healing (medicine) 662.
V. be alive &c. adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c. (exist) 1;
walk the earth "strut and fret one's hour upon the stage" [Macbeth]; be
see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw
breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken; revive;
come to life.
give birth to &c. (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life,
vitalize; vivify, vivificate[obs3]; reanimate &c. (restore) 660; keep
alive, keep body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support
hive nine lives like a cat.
Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living;
on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated;
animative[obs3]; lively &c. (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious
of life; full of life, yeasty.
vital, vitalic[obs3]; vivifying, vivified, &c. v.; viable,
zoetic[obs3]; Promethean.
Adv. vivendi causa[Lat].
Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Lat][Seneca]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat][Marial].

<-- p. 103 -->

#360. Death. -- N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure,
obit, release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality,
end of life &c. 67, cessation of life &c. 142, loss of life,
extinction of life, ebb of life &c. 359.
death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of death,
agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of death, hand of
death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day, dying breath, dying
agonies; chant du cygne[Fr]; rigor mortis[Lat]; Stygian shore.
King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c. (necessity) 601; "Hell's
grim Tyrant" [Pope].
euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay;
sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of nature;
suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c. (disease) 655; death blow &c.
(killing) 361.
necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c. (lamentation)
V. die, expire, perish; meet one's death, meet one's end; pass away,
be taken; yield one's breath, resign one's breath; resign one's being,
resign one's life; end one's days, end one's life, end one's earthly
career; breathe one's last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart this
life; be no more &c. adj.; go off, drop off, pop off; lose one's life, lay
down one's life, relinquish one's life, surrender one's life; drop into the
grave, sink into the grave; close one's eyes; fall dead, drop dead, fall
down dead, drop down dead; break one's neck; give up the ghost, yield up
the ghost; be all over with one.
pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one's last
sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one's checks, pass in one's checks,
hand in one's chips, pass in one's chips [U.S.]; join the greater number,
join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross the Stygian ferry,
cross the bar; go to one's long account, go to one's last home, go to Davy
Jones's locker, go to the wall; receive one's death warrant, make one's
will, step out, die a natural death, go out like the snuff of a candle;
come to an untimely end; catch one's death; go off the hooks, kick the
bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up one's toes; die a violent death
&c. (be killed) 361.
Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct;
late, gone, no more; exanimate[obs3], inanimate; out of the world, taken
off, released; departed this life &c. v.; dead and gone; dead as a
doornail, dead as a doorpost[obs3], dead as a mutton, dead as a herring,
dead as nits; launched into eternity, gone to one's eternal reward, gone to
meet one's maker, pushing up daisies, gathered to one's fathers, numbered
with the dead.
dying &c. v.; moribund, morient|; hippocratic; in articulo, in
extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux
abois[Fr]; one one's last legs, on one's death bed; at the point of death,
at death's door,, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over, booked;
with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the grave.
stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c. (killing) 361.
Adv. post obit, post mortem[Lat].
Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are
numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed;
Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is out
of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat][Vergil]; de
mortuis nil nisi bonum[Lat]; dulce et decorum est pro patria mori
[Lat][Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat][Tacitus]; "in
adamantine chains shall death be bound" [Pope]; mors ultima linea rerum est
[Lat][Girace]; ominia mors aequat [Lat][Claudianus]; "Spake the grisly
Terror" [Paradise Lost]; "the lone couch of this everlasting sleep"
[Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and taxes.

<-- p. 104 -->

#361. [Destruction of live; violent death.] Killing. -- N. killing &c.
v.; homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation|, iccusion|;
effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage, butchery;
massacre; fusillade, noyade[obs3]; thuggery, Thuggism[obs3].
deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c.
(capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom.
butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat,
garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur[obs3]; guet-a-pens;
gallows, executioner &c. (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache[obs3], hatchet
man [U.S.], highbinder [obs3][U.S.].
regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide,
foeticide[obs3], uxoricide[obs3], vaticide[obs3].
suicide, felo de se[obs3], hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath[obs3];
immolation, auto da fe, holocaust.
suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c. v.; lapidation[obs3].
deadly weapon &c. (arms) 727; Aceldama[obs3].
[Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics[obs3]; sport,
sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig-
sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod; slaughterhouse,
meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir.
fatal accident, violent death, casualty.
V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher,
slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of life;
make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle, do for.
strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop the
breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.
saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate[obs3]; stab,
run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the
edge of the sword.
shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head; stone,
lapidate[obs3]; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus, give a
coupe de grace.
behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c. (execute) 972.
hunt, shoot &c. n.
cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity, send to one's last
account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death knell of.
give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck; wade
knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood.
die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains,
blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with
oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.
Adj. killing &c. v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary,
sanguinolent[obs3]; blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed;
bloody, bloody minded; ensanguined[obs3], gory; thuggish.
mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous|, lethiferous[obs3];
unhealthy &c. 657; internecine; suicidal.
sporting; piscatorial, piscatory[obs3].
Adv. in at the death.
Phr. "assassination has never changed the history of the world"

#362. Corpse. -- N. corpse, corse[obs3], carcass, cadaver, bones,
skeleton, dry bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae[Lat], remains, mortal
remains, dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for
fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.
shade, ghost, manes.
organic remains, fossils.
Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c. 363;

#363. Interment. -- N. interment, burial, sepulture[obs3];
inhumation|; obsequies, exequies[obs3]; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile;
funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell,
tolling; dirge &c. (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march, muffled
drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral oration, funeral
sermon; epitaph.
graveclothes[obs3], shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.
coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque,
cinerary urn[obs3].
grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum,
Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial place,
burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope, cromlech, barrow,
tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house, dead house; morgue;
lich gate[obs3]; burning ghat[obs3]; crematorium, crematory; dokhma[obs3],
mastaba[obs3], potter's field, stupa[obs3], Tower of Silence.
sexton, gravedigger.
monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone;
memento mori[Lat]; hatchment[obs3], stone; obelisk, pyramid.
exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem
examination[Lat]; zoothapsis[obs3].
V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the
tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm, mummify;
toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn[obs3].
exhume, disinter, unearth.
Adj. burried &c. v.; burial, funereal, funebrial[obs3]; mortuary,
sepulchral, cinerary[obs3]; elegiac; necroscopic[obs3].
Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem[Lat]; beneath the sod.
Phr. hic jacet[Lat][obs3], ci-git[Fr]; RIP; requiescat in pace[Lat];
"the lone couch of his everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; "without a grave-
unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown" [Byron]; "in the dark union of
insensate dust" [Byron]; "the deep cold shadow of the tomb" [Moore].

<-- p. 105 -->
Special Vitality

#364. Animality. -- N. animal life; animation, animality[obs3],
animalization[obs3]; animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c. 159.
Adj. fleshly, human, corporeal.

#365. Vegetability|. -- N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability|;
V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.
Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive[obs3].

#366. Animal. -- N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.
beast, brute, creature, critter [US dialect], wight, created being;
creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte.
[major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish,
crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe.
[microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c. 193.
[reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur [extinct]; snake,
serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick[obs3].
[amphibians] frog, toad.
[fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine, mackerel.
[insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee.
[arthropods] tardigrade, spider.
[classification by number of feet] biped, quadruped.
flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals; game,
ferae naturae[Lat]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air, denizens of the
sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock[obs3], duck, grouse, plover, rail,
[domesticated mammals] horse &c. (beast of burden) 271; cattle,
kine[obs3], ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn;
sheep; lamb, lambkin[obs3]; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow;
steer, stot[obs3]; tag, teg[obs3]; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat.
[dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog, watch
dog, sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog, toy dog,
bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag hound, deer
hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel, pointer, setter,
retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel; pug, poodle; turnspit;
terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie Dinmont; collie.
[cats][generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin[obs3]; gib cat, tom
[wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe, roe;
caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar[obs3].
bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer, partlet[obs3],
rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes, feathered
songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch;
aberdevine[obs3], cushat[obs3], cygnet, ringdove[obs3], siskin, swan, wood
[undesirable animals] vermin, varmint[Western US], pest.
Adj. animal, zoological
equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy; piscatory[obs3],
piscatorial; molluscous[obs3], vermicular; gallinaceous, rasorial[obs3],
solidungulate[obs3], soliped[obs3].

#367. Vegetable. -- N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.
plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.
annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.
timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst[obs3], frith[obs3],
holt, weald[obs3], park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice,
bocage[obs3], tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood,
brushwood; scrub; boscage, bosk[obs3], ceja[Sp], chaparral, motte
[obs3][U.S.].; arboretum &c. 371.
bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze, gorse,
whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary[obs3]; sedge, rush, weed;
fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva[obs3], mold; growth;
alfalfa, alfilaria[obs3], banyan; blow, blowth[obs3]; floret[obs3],
petiole; pin grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia.
foliage, branch, bough, ramage[obs3], stem, tigella[obs3]; spray &c.
51; leaf.
flower, blossom, bine[obs3]; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree;
pulse, legume.
Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive[obs3], vegitous|; herbaceous,
herbal; botanic[obs3]; sylvan, silvan[obs3]; arborary[obs3],
arboreous[obs3], arborescent[obs3], arborical|; woody, grassy; verdant,
verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous[obs3], ligneous; wooden, leguminous;
vosky[obs3], cespitose[obs3], turf-like, turfy; endogenous, exogenous.
Phr. "green-robed senators of mighty woods" [Keats]; "this is the
forest primeval" [Longfellow].

<-- p. 106 -->

#368. [The science of animals.] Zoology. -- N. zoology, zoonomy[obs3],
zoography[obs3], zootomy[obs3]; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal
physiology, comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.
anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology[obs3],
malacology[obs3], helminthology[Med], entomology, oryctology[obs3],
paleontology, mastology[obs3], vermeology[obs3]; ichthy &c.
ichthyotomy[obs3]; taxidermy.
zoologist &c.
Adj. zoological &c. n.

#369. [The science of plants.] Botany. -- N. botany; physiological
botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography[obs3],
phytology[obs3], phytotomy[obs3]; vegetable physiology,
herborization[obs3], dendrology, mycology, fungology[obs3], algology[obs3];
flora, romona; botanic garden &c. (garden) 371[obs3]; hortus siccus[Lat],
herbarium, herbal.
botanist &c.; herbist[obs3], herbarist[obs3], herbalist,
herborist[obs3], herbarian[obs3].
V. botanize, herborize[obs3].
Adj. botanical &c. n.; botanic[obs3].

#370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry. -- N.
husbandry, taming &c. v.; circuration[obs3], zoohygiantics[obs3];
domestication, domesticity; manege[Fr], veterinary art; farriery[obs3];
breeding, pisciculture.
menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary,
alveary[obs3], beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.
phthisozoics &c. (killing) 361[obs3][Destruction of animals];
euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction.
neatherd[obs3], cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper[obs3];
trainer, breeder; apiarian[obs3], apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy,
cow puncher [U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero,
veterinarian, vet, veterinary surgeon.
cage &c. (prison) 752; hencoop[obs3], bird cage, cauf[obs3]; range,
sheepfold, &c. (inclosure) 232.
V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage,
bridle, &c. (restrain) 751.
Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

#371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture. -- N.
agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics[obs3];
tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture,
arboriculture[obs3], floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.
husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor[obs3],
agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil, woodcutter,
backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron[obs3], viticulturist; Triptolemus.
field, meadow, garden; botanic garden[obs3], winter garden, ornamental
garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden; nursery;
green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot;
grassplot[obs3], grassplat[obs3], lawn; park &c. (pleasure ground) 840;
parterre, shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery[obs3],
pinetum[obs3], orchard; vineyard, vinery; orangery[obs3]; farm &c. (abode)
V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut;
manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow, harrow,
rake, weed, lop and top; backset [obs3][U.S.].
Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic[obs3].
arable, predial[obs3], rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

#372. Mankind. -- N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human
kind, human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.
[Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny[obs3],
anthropography[obs3], anthroposophy[obs3]; ethnology, ethnography;
human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow creature,
mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul, living soul;
earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae[Lat]; quidam[Lat].
people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community, community at
large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm; commonweal,
commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c. (commonalty) 876;
population &c. (inhabitant) 188.
tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11.
cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.
Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public,
social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.
Phr. "am I not a man and a brother?" [Wedgwood].

<-- p. 107 -->

#373. Man. -- N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c. (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight|!, swain, fellow, blade, beau,
elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c. (married man) 903; Mr., mister;
boy &c. (youth) 129.
[Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck, horse,
entire horse, stallion; gibcat[obs3], tomcat; he goat, Billy goat; ram,
tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot[obs3].
homosexual, gay, queen[slang].
V. masculinize
Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
Pron. he, him, his.
Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat][Mar.]; homo homini aut deus
aut lupus [Lat][Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est

#374. Woman. -- N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
feminality[obs3], muliebrity[obs3]; womanhood &c. (adolescence) 131.
womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs. lady, donna belle[Sp], matron,
dowager, goody, gammer[obs3]; Frau[Ger], frow[obs3], Vrouw[Dutch], rani;
good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c. (marriage) 903; matronage,
bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
nymph, wench, grisette[obs3]; girl &c. (youth) 129.
[Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean[obs3],
henhussy[obs3], mollycoddle, muff, old woman.
[Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny goat,
tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
estrogen, oestrogen.
consanguinity &c. 166[female relatives], paternity &c. 11.
lesbian, dyke[slang].
V. feminize.
Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic[obs3], gynaecic[obs3].
Pron. she, her, hers.
Phr. "a perfect woman nobly planned" [Wordsworth]; "a lovely lady
garmented in white" [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan
[Ger][Goethe]; "earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected" [Lowell]; es de
vidrio la mujer[Sp]; "she moves a goddess and she looks a queen" [Pope];
"the beauty of a lovely woman is like music" [G. Eliot]; varium et mutabile
semper femina [Lat][Vergil]; "woman is the lesser man" [Tennyson].

#374a. Sexuality [human] -- N. sex, sexuality, gender; male,
masculinity, maleness &c. 373; female, femininity &c. 374.
sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking,
marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.
sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence; hots, horns
[coll]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection, hard-on,
masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-abuse.
orgasm, climax, ejaculation.
sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.
[sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.
[person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.
one-night stand.
pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore pornography;
pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; Playboy[magazines with sexual photos],
Esquire, Hustler.
[unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual
abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality;
sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism, masochism, sado-masochism; incest.
V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex,
do it, sleep together, fuck[vulg.]; sleep around, play the field..
masturbate, jerk off[coll.], jack off[coll.], play with oneself.
have the hots[coll]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection, get it
come, climax, ejaculate.
Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.
hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded,
libidinous; up, in the mood.
homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.

Sensation in general

#375. Physical Sensibility. -- N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c. adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity, aesthetics;
moral sensibility &c. 822.
sensation, impression; consciousness &c. (knowledge) 490.
external senses.
V. be sensible of &c. adj.; feel, perceive.
render sensible &c. adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an impression.
Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
conscious &c. (aware) 490.
acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
Adv. to the quick.
Phr. "the touch'd needle trembles to the pole" [Pope].

#376. Physical Insensibility. -- N. insensibility, physical
insensibility; obtuseness &c. adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia[Med],
anaesthesia; sleep &c. 823; hemiplegia[obs3], motor paralysis; vegetable
state; coma.
anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous oxide,
laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen[ISA:chemsubcfs];
V. be insensible &c. adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.
render insensible &c. adj.; anaesthetize[obs3], blunt, pall,
obtund[obs3], benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c.
n.; stupefy, stun.
Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient[obs3], callous,
thick-skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof,
obtuse, dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

<-- p. 108 -->

#377. Physical Pleasure. -- N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual
pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification,
hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c. adj.; dissipation, round of
pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow &c.
(support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of downs,
bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c. (intemperance) 954.
treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice[Fr]; dainty &c. 394; bonne
source of pleasure &c. 829; happiness &c. (mental enjoyment) 827.
V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy,
relish; luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat
up, wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.
live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c. adv.; bask in the
sunshine, faire ses choux gras[Fr]..
give pleasure &c. 829.
Adj. enjoying &c. v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable,
cosy, snug, in comfort, at ease.
pleasant, agreeable &c. 829.
Adv. in comfort &c. n.; on a bed of roses &c. n.; at one's ease.
Phr. ride si sapis [Lat][Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus

#378. Physical Pain. -- N. pain; suffering, sufferance,
suffrance[obs3]; bodily pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical
suffering, body pain; mental suffering &c. 828; dolour, ache; aching &c.
v.; smart; shoot, shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache,
heartburn, angina, angina pectoris[Lat]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness;
discomfort, malaise; cephalalgia[Med], earache, gout, ischiagra[obs3],
lumbago, neuralgia, odontalgia[obs3], otalgia[obs3], podagra[obs3],
rheumatism, sciatica; tic douloureux[Fr], toothache, tormina[obs3],
spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes[obs3]; crick, stitch; thrill,
convulsion, throe; throb &c. (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.
sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting,
gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.
anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation[obs3], crucifixion;
martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.
V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c. n.;
suffer, ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate[obs3];
writhe, wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.
give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite,
gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring,
convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate[obs3],
excruciate|; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c. (punish) 972;
grate on the ear &c. (harsh sound) 410.
Adj. in pain &c. n., in a state of pain; pained &c. v.; gouty,
podagric[obs3], torminous[obs3].
painful; aching &c. v.; sore, raw.

Special Sensation
(1) Touch

#379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch. -- N. touch; tact, taction[obs3],
tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation[obs3];
manipulation; massage.
[Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler,
antenna; palpus[obs3].
V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble;
twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over; manipulate,
wield; throw out a feeler.
Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

<-- p. 109 -->

#380. Sensations of Touch. -- N. itching, pruritis &c. v[Med].;
titillation, formication[obs3], aura; stereognosis[obs3].
V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
Adj. itching &c. v.; stereognostic[obs3], titillative.

#381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness. -- N. numbness &c. (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
V. benumb &c. 376.
Adj. numb; benumbed &c. v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.

(2) Heat

#382. Heat. -- N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor,
calidity[obs3]; incalescence[obs3], incandescence; glow, flush; fever,
phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze; bonfire;
firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny[obs3]; wildfire; sheet of fire, lambent
flame; devouring element; adiathermancy[obs3]; recalescence[Phys].
summer, dog days; canicular days[obs3]; baking &c. 384 heat, white
heat, tropical heat, Afric heat[obs3], Bengal heat[obs3], summer heat,
blood heat; sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c. 384.
sun &c. (luminary) 423.
[Science of heat] pyrology[obs3]; thermology[obs3], thermotics[obs3],
thermodynamics; thermometer &c. 389.
[thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie,
kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm,
[units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees centigrade,
degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit.
V. be hot &c. adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek,
stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame; smolder;
parch, fume, pant.
heat &c. (make hot) 384; recalesce[obs3]; thaw, give.
Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal,
thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.
sunny, torrid, tropical, estival|!, canicular[obs3], steamy; close,
sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c. v.; baking
&c. 384.
red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c. v. hot, piping hot; like
a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot enough to
roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg.
fiery; incandescent, incalescent[obs3]; candent[obs3], ebullient,
glowing, smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c. v.; in flames, blazing, in a
blaze; alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished[obs3]; smoldering;
in a heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat;
sudorific[obs3]; sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a
toast, warm as wool.
volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal|!, isothermic|!, isotheral|!.
Phr. not a breath of air; "whirlwinds of tempestuous fire" [Paradise

#383. Cold. -- N. cold, coldness &c. adj.; frigidity, inclemency,
winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-chill
[forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow
drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost, hard
frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U. S.], lolly [obs3][N. Am.]; icicle,
thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe berg;
glacier; neve, serac[obs3]; pruina[obs3].
[cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen, liquid
[Sensation of cold] chilliness &c. adj.; chill; shivering &c. v.;
goose skin, horripilation[obs3]; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness,
V. be cold &c. adj[intrans.].; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble,
shudder, didder[obs3], quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold.
[transitive] chill, freeze &c. (render cold) 385; horripilate[obs3],
make the skin crawl, give one goose flesh.
Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid[obs3];
fresh, keen, bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous[obs3], cutting,
nipping, piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c. (made cold) 385;
chilled to the bone, shivering &c. v.; aguish, transi de froid[Fr];
frostbitten, frost-bound, frost-nipped.
cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold as a
frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool as
icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose[obs3], wintry, brumal[obs3],
hibernal[obs3], boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal[obs3]; hyperborean,
hyperboreal[obs3]; icebound; frozen out.
unwarmed[obs3], unthawed[obs3]; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal[obs3],
isocheimenal[obs3], isocheimic[obs3].
frozen, numb, frost-bitten.
Adv. coldly, bitterly &c. adj.; pierre fendre[Fr];

<-- p. 110 -->

#384. Calefaction. -- N. increase of temperature; heating &c. v.;
calefaction[obs3], tepefaction[obs3], torrefaction[obs3]; melting, fusion;
liquefaction &c. 335; burning &c. v.; ambustion[obs3], combustion;
incension|, accension[obs3]; concremation[obs3], cremation;
scorification[obs3]; cautery, cauterization; ustulation[obs3], calcination;
cracking, refining; incineration, cineration[obs3]; carbonization;
ignition, inflammation, adustion[obs3], flagration| [obs3];
deflagration, conflagration; empyrosis[obs3], incendiarism; arson; auto
boiling &c. v.; coction[obs3], ebullition, estuation[obs3],
elixation|, decoction; ebullioscope[obs3]; geyser; distillation
(vaporization) 336.
furnace &c. 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c. (lining) 224;
clothing &c. 225.
still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower, cracking
match &c. (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse[Fr];
[biological effects resembling the effects of heat][substances causing
a burning sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer[obs3];
caustic, lunar caustic, alkali, apozem[obs3], moxa[obs3]; acid, aqua
fortis[Lat], aqua regia; catheretic[obs3], nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric
acid[ISA:CHEMSUB], nitromuriatic acid[ISA:CHEMSUBPREFIX]; radioactivity,
gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays, radiation, cosmic
radiation, background radiation, radioactive isotopes, tritium, uranium,
plutonium, radon, radium.
sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr]; insolation.
[artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics,
crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra
cotta[Sp], brick, clinker.
[products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag.
[products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal; wood
alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha[ISA:CHEMSUB],
fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar.
inflammability, combustibility.
[Transmission of heat] diathermancy[obs3], transcalency[obs3],
conduction; convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity,
[effects of heat 2.] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion.
V. heat, warm, chafe, stive[obs3], foment; make hot &c. 382; sun
oneself, sunbathe.
go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382.
fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite,
strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle,
relume[obs3]; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the
fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of.
melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c. 335.
burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake,
torrefy[obs3], scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char,
calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify[obs3]; reduce to ashes; burn to a
cinder; commit to the flames, consign to the flames.
boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to rags.
take fire, catch fire; blaze &c. (flame) 382.
Adj. heated &c. v.; molten, sodden; rchauff; heating &c. v.;
inflammable, combustible; diathermal[obs3], diathermanous[obs3]; burnt
&c. v.; volcanic, radioactive.

#385. Refrigeration. -- N. refrigeration, infrigidation[obs3],
reduction of temperature; cooling &c. v.; congelation[obs3], conglaciation|
[obs3]; ice &c. 383; solidification &c. (density) 321; ice box
(refrigerator) 385..
extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth[obs3], amianthus[obs3];
earth-flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade
(incombustibility) 388a.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj[obs3]. (insulation) 388a.
air conditioning[residential cooling], central air conditioning; air
conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier.
V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate;
benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate[obs3],
nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter,
damp, slack quench; put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out
(incombustibility) 388a..
Adj. cooled &c. v.; frozen out; cooling &c. v.; frigorific[obs3].

#386. Furnace. -- N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth,
focus, combustion chamber; athanor[obs3], hypocaust[obs3], reverberatory;
volcano; forge, fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier[obs3],
salamander, heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot;
urn, kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons;
muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace,
electric resistance heat.
[steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace.
fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-irons;
grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose[obs3]; poker, tongs, shovel,
ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan, stew-pan,
[area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook.
[residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin stove,
pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam heat, hot
water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat pump; solar heat,
convective heat.
hothouse, bakehouse[obs3], washhouse[obs3]; laundry; conservatory;
sudatory[obs3]; Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath,
sauna, warm bath; vaporarium[obs3].

#387. Refrigerator. -- N. refrigerator, refrigeratory[obs3];
frigidarium[obs3]; cold storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse,
icepail, icebag, icebox; cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler.
freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer,
freezing mixture[refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes, blocks of
ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone, liquid

#388. Fuel. -- N. fuel, firing, combustible.
[solid fuels] coal, wallsend[obs3], anthracite, culm[obs3], coke,
carbon, charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood,
bobbing, faggot, log; cinder &c. (products of combustion) 384; ingle,
tinder, touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel,
fireball, brand; amadou[obs3], bavin[obs3]; blind coal, glance coal; German
tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U. S.]; solid fueled rocket.
[fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil; lamp
oil, whale oil.
[liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline,
nitromethane[ISA:CHEMSUB@fuel], petrol, gas, juice [coll.], gasohol,
alcohol, ethanol, methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil,
number 2 oil, number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse
fuel, liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox.
[gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas, propane,
butane, hydrogen.
brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer,
congreve[obs3], vesuvian, vesta[obs3], fusee, locofoco[obs3];
candle &c. (luminary) 423; oil &c. (grease) 356.
Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high
specific impulse; heat of combustion,.

#388a. Insulation, Fire extinction. {ant. of 388} -- insulation,
incombustible material, noncombustible material; fire retardant, flame
retardant; fire wall, fire door.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj.
extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth[obs3], amianthus[obs3];
earth-flax, mountain-flax; asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater,
fire department, fire brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and
ladder, aerial ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.
[forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water bombardment.
wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry
chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam;
sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.
[warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm,
[laws to prevent fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire
inspector; code violation, citation.
V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.
extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out; douse,
snuff, snuff out, blow out.
fireproof, flameproof.
Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable,
unflammable[obs3]; fireproof.
Phr. fight fire with fire

<-- p. 111 -->

#389. Thermometer. -- N. thermometer, thermometrograph[obs3], mercury
thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb
thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer[Ger], gas
thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator;
thermopile, thermoscope[obs3]; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter;
thermistor, thermocouple.
[temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.

(3) Taste

#390. Taste. -- N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor|, sapidity[obs3]; twang, smack, smatch| [obs3]; aftertaste, tang.
tasting; degustation, gustation.
palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
V. taste, savor, smatch[obs3], smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate
&c. (savory) 394; smack the lips.
Adj. sapid, saporific[obs3]; gustable|, gustatory; gustful[obs3];
strong, gamy; palatable &c. 394.

#391. Insipidity. -- N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c. adj.
V. be tasteless &c. adj.
Adj. bland, void of taste &c. 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless|,
savorless; ingustible|, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat, vapid,
fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted[obs3].

#392. Pungency. -- N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut-
gout, strong taste, twang, race.
sharpness &c. adj.; acrimony; roughness &c. (sour) 392; unsavoriness
&c. 395.
mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393; niter,
saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392a; carbonate of ammonia; sal
ammoniac[obs3], sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401a.
dram, cordial, nip.
nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar[obs3]; cigar, cigarette;
weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid[obs3], negro head, old
soldier, rappee[obs3], stogy[obs3].
V. be pungent &c. adj.; bite the tongue.
render -pungent &c. adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle, brine,
devil. smoke, chew, take snuff.
Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high-
seasoned; gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant;
spicy; seasoned &c. v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating[obs3],
escharotic[obs3], meracious|; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c. (sour)
397; unsavory &c. 395.

#392a. Saltiness. -- N. saltiness.
niter, saltpeter, brine.
Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a
herring, salty as Lot's wife.
salty, racy (indecent) 961.
Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

#392b. Bitterness -- N. bitterness, acridness[obs3], acridity,
acrimony; caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent
[additive for alcoholic beverages]Angostura aromatic bitters.
sourness &c. 397; pungency &c. 392.
[bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.
Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.
Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter

#393. Condiment. -- N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
[exlist] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black pepper,
white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante[Fr]; caviare, onion,
garlic, pickle; achar[obs3], allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper, green
pepper; chutney; cubeb[obs3], pimento.
[capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.
nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.
[herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves,
[fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.
[from pods] paprika.
[from flower stigmas] saffron.
[from roots] ginger, turmeric.
V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c. (render pungent) 392.

#394. Savoriness. -- N. savoriness &c. adj.; good taste,
deliciousness, delectability.
relish, zest; appetizer.
tidbit, titbit[obs3], dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors
d'ouvres[Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche[Fr]; game, turtle, venison;
V. be savory &c. adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
render palatable &c. adj.
relish, like, smack the lips.
Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful[obs3], toothsome;
gustful[obs3], appetizing, lickerish[obs3], delicate, exquisite, rich,
luscious, ambrosial, scrumptious, delightful.
Adv. per amusare la bocca
Phr[It]. cela se laisse manger[Fr].

<-- p. 112 -->

#395. Unsavoriness. -- N. unsavoriness &c. adj.; amaritude[obs3];
acrimony, acridity (bitterness) 392b; roughness &c. (sour) 397; acerbity,
austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia[obs3], aloes; marah[obs3];
V. be unpalatable &c. adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the
Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet[obs3]; ill-flavored;
bitter, bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.
offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c. v.; nauseous; loathsome,
fulsome; unpleasant &c. 830.

#396. Sweetness. -- N. sweetness, dulcitude[obs3].
sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture[obs3], jam,
julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop,
bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson, glucose;
maple sirup[obs3], maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai[obs3], sorghum, taffy.
nectar; hydromel[obs3], mead, meade[obs3], metheglin[obs3],
honeysuckle, liqueur, sweet wine, aperitif.
[sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.
[sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart, puff,
pudding (food) 298.
dulcification|, dulcoration|.
sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar,
dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, Sweet'N
V. be sweet &c. adj.
render sweet &c. adj.; sweeten; edulcorate[obs3]; dulcorate|,
dulcify|; candy; mull. Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous[obs3];
dulcet, candied, honied[obs3], luscious, lush, nectarious[obs3],
melliferous[obs3]; sweetened &c. v.
sweet as a nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
sickly sweet.
Phr. eau sucre[Fr]; "sweets to the sweet" [Hamlet].

#397. Sourness. -- N. sourness &c. adj.; acid, acidity, low pH;
acetous fermentation, lactic fermentation.
vinegar, verjuice[obs3], crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c. adj.; set the teeth on edge.
render sour &c. adj.; acidify, acidulate.
Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose[obs3]; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent[obs3],
subacid[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.
Phr. sour as a lemon.

(4) Odor

#398. Odor. -- N. odor, smell, odorament|, scent, effluvium;
emanation, exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor|, redolence.
sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c. v.; olfaction,
[pleasant odor] fragrance &c. 400.
[animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.
[smell detected by a hound] spoor.
V. have an odor &c. n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c. n.; reek, reek of; scent.
smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong-
scented; redolent, graveolent[obs3], nidorous[obs3], pungent; putrid,
[Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

#399. Inodorousness.-- N. inodorousness[obs3]; absence of smell, want
of smell.
deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
V. be inodorous &c. adj[obs3].; not smell.
Adj. inodorous[obs3], onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting
smell &c. 398.
deodorized, deodorizing.

#400. Fragrance. -- N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet,
essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume.
agalloch[obs3], agallochium[obs3]; aloes wood; bay rum;
calambac[obs3], calambour[obs3]; champak[obs3], horehound[ISA:plant@mint],
lign-aloes[obs3], marrubium[obs3], mint, muskrat, napha water[obs3],
olibanum[obs3], spirit of myrcia[obs3].
essential oil.
incense; musk, frankincense; pastil[obs3], pastille; myrrh, perfumes
of Arabia[obs3]; otto[obs3], ottar[obs3], attar; bergamot, balm, civet,
potpourri, pulvil|; nosegay; scentbag[obs3]; sachet, smelling bottle,
vinaigrette; eau de Cologne[Fr], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion;
[fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene.
V. be fragrant &c. adj.; have a perfume &c. n.; smell sweet.
scent[render fragrant], perfume, embalm.
Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented,
sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory[obs3]; thuriferous;
fragrant as a rose, muscadine[obs3], ambrosial.

#401. Fetor. -- N. fetor[obs3]; bad &c. adj. smell, bad odor; stench,
stink; foul odor, malodor; empyreuma[obs3]; mustiness &c. adj.; rancidity;
foulness &c. (uncleanness) 653.
stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida[obs3]; fungus, garlic; stinkpot;
fitchet[obs3], fitchew[obs3], fourmart[obs3], peccary.
acridity &c. 401a.
V. have a bad smell &c. n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink
like a polecat; smell strong &c. adj., smell offensively.
Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive,
noisome, rank, rancid, reasty[obs3], tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy[obs3];
olid[obs3], olidous|; nidorous[obs3]; smelling, stinking; putrid &c. 653;
suffocating, mephitic; empyreumatic[obs3].

#401a. Acridity -- N. acridity, astringency, bite.
[acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.
Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c. 392b.

<-- p. 113 -->
(5) Sound


#402. Sound. -- N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation,
tone; cadence; sonorousness &c. adj.; audibility; resonance &c. 408; voice
&c. 580; aspirate; ideophone[obs3]; rough breathing.
[Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology,
phonography[obs3]; diacoustics[obs3], diaphonics[obs3]; phonetism[obs3].
V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound;
resound &c. 408.
Adj. sounding; soniferous[obs3]; sonorous, sonorific[obs3]; resonant,
audible, distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic[obs3].
Phr. "a thousand trills and quivering sounds" [Addison]; forensis

#403. Silence. -- N. silence; stillness &c. (quiet) 265; peace, hush,
lull; muteness &c. 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence,
deathlike silence.
V. be silent &c. adj.; hold one's tongue &c. (not speak) 585.
render silent &c. adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop;
muzzle, put to silence &c. (render mute) 581.
Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c. v.; mute
&c. 581.
soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c.
(faint) 405.
Adv. silently &c. adj.; sub silentio[Lat].
Int. hush! silence! soft! whist! tush! chut[obs3]! tut! pax[Lat]! be
quiet! be silent! be still! shut up![rude]; chup[obs3]! chup rao[obs3]!
Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so
quiet you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [German]; le
silence est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [French]; le silence est
le parti le plus sar de celui se dfie de soi-meme[French]; "silence more
musical than any song" [C. G. Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant[Latin];
better to be silent and thought a fool than to speak up and remove all

#404. Loudness.-- N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang,
clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation[obs3], roar, uproar, racket, hubbub,
bobbery[obs3], fracas, charivari[obs3], trumpet blast, flourish of
trumpets, fanfare, tintamarre[obs3], peal, swell, blast, larum[obs3], boom;
bang (explosion) 406; resonance &c. 408.
vociferation, hullabaloo, &c. 411; lungs; Stentor.
artillery, cannon; thunder.
V. be loud &c. adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare,
fulminate, roar; resound &c. 408. speak up, shout &c. (vociferate) 411;
bellow &c. (cry as an animal) 412.
rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring in
the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend the
ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre[Fr]; make
one's windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes, startle the
echoes; wake the dead.
Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full,
powerful, noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous[obs3]; thundering,
deafening &c. v; trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear-
deafening; piercing; obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the
dead, enough to wake seven sleepers.
shrill &c. 410 clamorous &c. (vociferous) 411 stentorian,
Adv. loudly &c. adj. aloud; at the top of one's voice, at the top of
one's lungs, lustily, in full cry.
Phr. the air rings with; "the deep dread-bolted thunder" [Lear].

#405. Faintness. -- N. faintness &c. adj.; faint sound, whisper,
breath; undertone, underbreath[obs3]; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle;
"still small voice."
hoarseness &c. adj.; raucity[obs3].
V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow;
tinkle; mutter &c. (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate[obs3].
steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.
Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled,
muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing &c.
v.; whispered &c. v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c. (melodious) 413;
susurrant[obs3], susurrous[obs3].
Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], between the
teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine[obs3]; out of earshot
inaudibly &c. adj.

<-- p. 114 -->

#406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap. -- N. snap &c. v.; rapping
&c. v.; decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast,
boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun,
bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.
[explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton,
nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT, cordite,
trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate (arms) 727.
whack, wham, pow.
V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash;
pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham;
brustle[obs3]; burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
blow up, blow; detonate.
Adj. rapping &c. v.
Int. kaboom! whamo! Heewhack! pow!

#407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll. -- N. roll &c. v.;
drumming &c. v.; berloque[obs3], bombination[obs3], rumbling; tattoo,
drumroll; dingdong; tantara[obs3]; rataplan[obs3]; whirr; ratatat, ratatat-
tat; rubadub; pitapat; quaver, clutter, charivari[obs3], racket; cuckoo;
repetition &c. 104; peal of bells, devil's tattoo; reverberation &c. 408.
[sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.
hum, purr.
[animals that hum] hummingbird.
[animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.
V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack;
hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
drum in the ear, din in the ear.
Adj. rolling &c. v.; monotonous &c. (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

<-- resonance here covers 3 sound qualities; echo, low note, and ringing.
They should be separated. The physical science meanings must also be
listed separately -->

#408. Resonance. -- N. resonance; ring &c. v.; ringing,
tintinabulation &c. v.; reflexion[Brit], reflection, reverberation; echo,
reecho; zap, zot[coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409.
low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note;
bass; basso, basso profondo[It]; baritone, barytone[obs3]; contralto.
[device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator.
[ringing in the ears] tinnitus[Med].
[devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer; gong,
cymbals (musical instruments) 417.
[physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency,
coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding board,
tuning fork.
[electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection;
resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c. @
[chemical resonance] resonant structure, aromaticity, alternating
double bonds, non-bonded resonance; pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond
(valence) @
V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle[obs3],
chink, clink; tink[obs3], tinkle; chime; gurgle &c. 405 plash, goggle,
echo, ring in the ear.
Adj. resounding &c. v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient|,
tintinnabulary; sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed,
vibrant; hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c. (harsh) 410.
Phr. "sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh" [Hamlet]; echoing
down the mountain and through the dell.

#408a. Nonresonance[obs3]. -- N. thud, thump, dead sound;
nonresonance[obs3]; muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound,
deaden the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
Adj. nonresonant[obs3], dead; dampened, muffled.

<-- "sibilation" includes hissing and buzzing -->
#409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation. -- N. sibilance, sibilation; zip;
hiss &c. v.; sternutation; high note &c. 410.
[animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.
[animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.
[inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air valve,
pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from tires,
punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam release valve.
V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
Adj. sibilant; hissing &c. v.; wheezy; sternutative[obs3].

#410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor. -- N. creak &c. v.; creaking &c. v.;
discord, &c. 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c. adj.; cacophony;
acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto, penny
trumpet, voce di testa[It].
V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream
&c. (cry) 411; yelp &c. (animal sound) 412; buzz &c. (hiss) 409.
set the teeth on edge, corcher les oreilles[Fr]; pierce the ears,
split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the ear, jar
upon the ear.
Adj. creaking &c. v.; stridulous[obs3], harsh, coarse, hoarse,
horrisonous|, rough, gruff, grum[obs3], sepulchral, hollow.
sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing,
high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c. 414; cacophonous.

<-- p. 115 -->

#411. Cry. -- N. cry &c. v.; voice &c. (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c.
(animal) 412.
vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry, plaint;
lungs; stentor.
V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell,
bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak[obs3], shriek, shrill, squeak,
squeal, squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup[obs3].
cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan.
snore, snort; grunt &c. (animal sounds) 412.
vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing out,
cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice, shout at
the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath, thunder at the
pitch of one's breath; s'gosiller; strain the throat, strain the voice,
strain the lungs; give a cry &c.
Adj. crying &c. v.; clamant[obs3], clamorous; vociferous; stentorian
&c. (loud) 404; open-mouthed.

#412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation. -- N. cry &c. v.; crying &c. v.;
bowwow, ululation, latration[obs3], belling; reboation[obs3]; wood-note;
insect cry, fritiniancy|, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.
wailing (lamentation) 839.
V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow[obs3]; growl, snarl.
[specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog]; bay,
bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr|, yawl, snarl,
howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle[obs3]; snort [pig, hog, swine, horse];
squeak [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey, mule, hinny,
ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat]; caterwaul, pule [cats];
baa[obs3], bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle]; troat[obs3], croak, peep
[frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack [duck]; honk, gaggle,
guggle [obs3][goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech, [crow]; cackle, cluck,
clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle; hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp,
cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill, tweet, pipe, whistle [small
birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz [flying insects, bugs]; hiss
[snakes, geese]; blatter[obs3]; ratatat [woodpecker].
Adj. crying &c. v.; blatant, latrant[obs3], remugient[obs3],
mugient[obs3]; deep-mouthed, full-mouthed; rebellowing[obs3],
Adv. in full cry.


#413. Melody. Concord. -- N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme
&c.(poetry) 597.
pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.
scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale[obs3], enharmonic
scale[obs3]; key, clef, chords.
modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation,
suspension, resolution.
staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato[obs3],
appoggiatura[obs3]; acciaccatura[obs3].
note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high note
&c.(shrillness) 410; low note &c. 408; interval; semitone; second, third,
fourth &c.; diatessaron[obs3].
breve, semibreve[Mus], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver,
demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden.
tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic[obs3],
mediant[obs3], dominant; submediant[obs3], subdominant[obs3]; octave,
tetrachord[obs3]; major key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major
mode, minor mode; passage, phrase.
concord, harmony; emmeleia[obs3]; unison, unisonance[obs3]; chime,
homophony; euphony, euphonism[obs3]; tonality; consonance; consent; part.
[Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass, fundamental-
bass; counterpoint; faburden[obs3].
piece of music &c. 415[Fr]; composer, harmonist[obs3], contrapuntist
(musician) 416.
V. be harmonious &c. adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize[obs3],
transpose; put in tune, tune, accord, string.
Adj. harmonious, harmonical[obs3]; in concord &c. n., in tune, in
concert; unisonant[obs3], concentual[obs3], symphonizing[obs3], isotonic,
homophonous[obs3], assonant; ariose[obs3], consonant.
measured, rhythmical, diatonic[obs3], chromatic, enharmonic[obs3].
melodious, musical; melic[obs3]; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet,
canorous[obs3]; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery;
euphonious, euphonic, euphonical[obs3]; symphonious; enchanting &c.
(pleasure-giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.
Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c. adj.
Phr. "the hidden soul of harmony" [Milton].

#414. Discord. -- N. discord, discordance; dissonance, cacophony,
want of harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c. 410. Babel[Confused
sounds]; Dutch concert, cat's concert; marrowbones and cleavers.
V. be discordant &c. adj.; jar &c. (sound harshly) 410.
Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant[obs3]; out of tune, tuneless;
unmusical, untunable[obs3]; unmelodious, immelodious[obs3];
unharmonious[obs3], inharmonious; singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c. 410;

<-- p. 116 -->

#415. Music. -- N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c. 413;
aria, arietta[obs3]; piece of music[Fr], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo,
rondeau[Fr]; pastorale, cavatina[obs3], roulade[obs3], fantasia, concerto,
overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon, quodlibet,
serenade, notturno [Italian], dithyramb; opera, operetta; oratorio;
composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [obs3][Italian], toccata, Vorspiel
instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and tweedledee,
band, orchestra; concerted piece[Fr], potpourri, capriccio.
vocal music, vocalism[obs3]; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn;
song &c. (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet[obs3], cantata, bravura, lay,
ballad, ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo[obs3],
Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c. adv.; minuet;
siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c. (lament) 839;
pibroch[obs3]; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c. (dance) 840.
solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett[obs3]; septett[obs3]; part
song, descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale;
antiphon[obs3], antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score;
bourdon[obs3], drone, morceau[obs3], terzetto[obs3].
composer &c. 413; musician &c. 416.
V. compose, perform &c. 416; attune.
Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious
&c. 413; Wagnerian.
Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino[obs3]; alla
capella[It][obs3]; maestoso[obs3], moderato; allegro, allegretto;
spiritoso[obs3], vivace[obs3], veloce[obs3]; presto, prestissimo[obs3]; con
brio; capriccioso[obs3]; scherzo, scherzando[obs3]; legato, staccato,
crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando[obs3], affettuoso[obs3]; obbligato;
pizzicato; desto[obs3].
Phr. "in notes by distance made more sweet" [Collins]; "like the
faint exquisite music of a dream" [Moore]; "music arose with its
voluptuous swell" [Byron]; "music is the universal language of mankind"
[Longfellow]; "music's golden tongue" [Keats]; "the speech of angels"
[Carlyle]; "will sing the savageness out of a bear" [Othello]; music hath
charms to soothe the savage beast.

#416. Musician. [Performance of Music.] -- N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c. (poet) 597;
[specific types of musicians] accompanist, accordionist,
instrumentalist, organist, pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler,
fifer[obs3], trumpeter, piper, drummer; catgut scraper.
band, orchestral waits.
vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter[obs3],
chauntress[obs3], songstress; cantatrice[obs3].
choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel[Ger].
nightingale, philomel[obs3], thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides;
sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo[obs3], the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore;
tuneful nine, tuneful quire.
composer &c. 413.
performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization[obs3].
V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike
the lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c. (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second; compose,
set to music, arrange.
sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt, purl,
quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa[obs3]; intone.
have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
Adj. playing &c. v.; musical.
Adv. adagio, andante &c. (music) 415.

<-- p. 117 -->

#417. Musical Instruments. -- N. musical instruments; band; string-
band, brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina[obs3].
monochord[obs3][Stringed instruments], polychord[obs3]; harp, lyre,
lute, archlute[obs3]; mandola[obs3], mandolin, mandoline[obs3]; guitar;
zither; cither[obs3], cithern[obs3]; gittern[obs3], rebeck[obs3],
bandurria[obs3], bandura, banjo; bina[obs3], vina[obs3]; xanorphica[obs3].
viol, violin; fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore[Fr], viola di
gamba[It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol;
theorbo[obs3], double base, contrabasso[obs3], violone[obs3], *psaltery;
bow, fiddlestick[obs3].
piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord[obs3],
manichord[obs3]; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy,
vielle[obs3], pianino[obs3], Eolian harp.
organ[Wind instruments]; harmonium, harmoniphon[obs3]; American
organ[obs3], barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina[obs3],
concertina; humming top.
flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet[obs3]; basset
horn, corno di bassetto[obs3], oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais[Fr], corno
Inglese[obs3], bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto[obs3], serpent, bass
clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed
instrument; sirene[obs3], pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet[obs3]; whistle,
catcall; doodlesack[obs3], harmoniphone[obs3].
horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean|, clarion, trumpet,
trombone, ophicleide[obs3]; French horn, saxophone, sax [informal],
buglehorn[obs3], saxhorn, flugelhorn[obs3], althorn[obs3],
helicanhorn[obs3], posthorn[obs3]; sackbut, euphonium, bombardon
[Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour|!, tambourine,
tamborine[obs3]; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret[obs3], tabourine[obs3],
taborin[obs3]; side drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani[obs3];
tymbal[obs3], timbrel[obs3], castanet, bones; musical glasses, musical
stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle; tam-tam, zambomba[obs3].
[Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical box,
harmonicon[obs3], xylophone.
sordine[obs3], sordet[obs3]; sourdine[obs3], sourdet[obs3]; mute.


#418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing. -- N. hearing &c. v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct ear,
musical ear; ear for music.
ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum, tympanic membrane.
[devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet,
speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.
[distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot, hearing
distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.
[devices for talking beyond hearing distance] telephone[exlist],
phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone, radiophone,
wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio, police radio,
two-way radio, walkie-talkie[military], handie-talkie, citizen's band, CB,
amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police band, ship-to-shore
radio, airplane radio, control tower communication; (communication) 525,
527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices (POINFO @.
[devices for recording and reproducing recorded sound] phonograph,
gramophone, megaphone, phonorganon[obs3].
[device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,directional
microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.
[devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals] phonograph
needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head (electronic devices).
hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.
auditory, audience.
[science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.
[physicians specializing in hearing] otologist, otorhinolaryngologist.
V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take
heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound, prick up
one's ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.
hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c. (resound) 4O8.
Adj. hearing &c. v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
Adv. arrectis auribus[Lat].
Int. hark, hark ye! hear! list, listen! O yes! Oyez!
listen up [coll.]; listen here! hear ye! attention! achtung [German].

#419. Deafness. -- N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity|;
inaudibility, inaudibleness[obs3].
V. be deaf &c. adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears,
close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.
render deaf, stun, deafen.
Adj. deaf, earless[obs3], surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing;
deaf-mute, stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an
adder, deaf as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker[obs3].
inaudible, out of hearing.
Phr. hear no evil.

<-- p. 118 -->

(6) Light

#420. Light.-- N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil;
sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.
day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight, starlight,
sun &c. (luminary) 432 light; daylight, broad daylight, noontide light;
noontide, noonday, noonday sun.
glow &c. v.; glimmering &c. v.; glint; play of light, flood of light;
phosphorescence, lambent flame.
flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.
spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c. v.; emication|, scintillation,
flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration[obs3]; flame &c. (fire) 382;
lightning, levin[obs3], ignis fatuus[Lat], &c. (luminary) 423.
luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion[Brit], reflection; gloss, tinsel,
spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence, refulgence;
fulgor[obs3], fulgidity[obs3]; dazzlement[obs3], resplendence,
transplendency[obs3]; luminousness &c. adj.; luminosity; lucidity;
renitency|, nitency[obs3]; radiance,, radiation; irradiation, illumination.
actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography, heliography;
photometer &c. 445.
[Science of light] optics; photology[obs3], photometry;
dioptrics[obs3], catoptrics[obs3].
[Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur[obs3], clear obscure,
breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.
reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.
V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare,
flare up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate,
coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c. adj.; reflect light, daze, dazzle,
bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.
clear up, brighten.
lighten, enlighten; levin[obs3]; light, light up; irradiate, shine
upon; give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in,
throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon;
illume[obs3], illumine, illuminate; relume[obs3], strike a light; kindle
&c. (set fire to) 384.
Adj. shining &c. v.; luminous, luminiferous[obs3]; lucid, lucent,
luculent[obs3], lucific[obs3], luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid,
splendent[obs3], nitid[obs3], lustrous, shiny, beamy[obs3],
scintillant[obs3], radiant, lambent; sheen, sheeny; glossy, burnished,
glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday, tide; cloudless, clear;
unclouded, unobscured[obs3].
gairish[obs3], garish; resplendent, transplendent[obs3]; refulgent,
effulgent; fulgid[obs3], fulgent[obs3]; relucent[obs3], splendid, blazing,
in a blaze, ablaze, rutilant[obs3], meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow. bright
as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday, bright as
noonday, bright as the sun at noonday. actinic; photogenic[obs2],
graphic; heliographic; heliophagous[obs3].
Phr. "a day for gods to stoop and men to soar" [Tennyson]; "dark
with excessive bright" [Milton].

#421. Darkness. -- N. darkness &c. adj., absence of light; blackness
&c. (dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c. (dimness) 422.
Cimmerian darkness[obs3], Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night;
midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of night;
blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be felt; palpable
obscure; Erebus[Lat]; "the jaws of darkness" [Midsummer Night's Dream];
"sablevested night" [Milton].
shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy[obs3].
obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration[obs3];
obtenebration[obs3], offuscation|, caligation|; extinction; eclipse, total
eclipse; gathering of the clouds.
shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420.
[perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum[Phys]; black hole; dark
star; dark matter, cold dark matter.
V. be dark &c. adj.
darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower; overcast, overshadow;
eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate|; obumbrate[obs3], adumbrate; cast into the
shade becloud, bedim[obs3], bedarken[obs3]; cast a shade, throw a shade,
spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a shadow, spread a
shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom.
extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.
turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off the
lights, switch off the lights.
Adj. dark, darksome[obs3], darkling; obscure, tenebrious[obs3],
sombrous[obs3], pitch dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous[obs3]; black
&c. (in color) 431.
sunless, lightless &c. (see sun[obs3], light, &c. 423); somber, dusky;
unilluminated &c. (see illuminate &c. 420)[obs3]; nocturnal; dingy, lurid,
gloomy; murky, murksome[obs3]; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c. (dim) 422;
cloudy &c. (opaque) 426; darkened; &c. v.
dark as pitch, dark as a pit, dark as Erebus[Lat].
benighted; noctivagant!|, noctivagous!|.
Adv. in the dark, in the shade.
Phr. "brief as the lightning in the collied night" [M. N. D.];
"eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature" [P. L.]; "the blackness of
the noonday night" [Longfellow]; "the prayer of Ajax was for light"

<-- p. 119 -->

#422. Dimness. -- N. dimness &c. adj.; darkness &c. 421; paleness &c.
(light color) 429.
half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of a
shade; glimmer, gliming[obs3]; nebulosity; cloud &c. 353; eclipse.
aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut time|;
break of day, daybreak, dawn.
moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade[obs3], moonshine; starlight, owl's
light, candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
V. be dim, grow dim &c. adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
render dim &c. adj.; dim, bedim[obs3], obscure; darken, tone down.
Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c. (opaque) 426; blear;
muggy|, fuliginous[obs3]; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated[obs3], overcast,
crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c. v.
pale &c. (colorless) 429; confused &c. (invisible) 447.

#423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary. -- N. luminary;
light &c. 420; flame &c. (fire) 382.
spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence.
sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo[obs3], Aurora; star, orb; meteor,
falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula,
Aldebaran[obs3]; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion[obs3];
day star, morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus;
sun dog|!; Venus.
aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern
lights, aurora australis.
lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning, summer
lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [German];
[chemical substances giving off light without burning] phosphorus,
yellow phosphorus; scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence.
ignis fatuus[Lat]; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-o'-the-wisp,
firedrake[obs3], Fata Morgana[Lat]; Saint Elmo's fire.
[luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug.
[luminous fish] anglerfish.
[Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern,
lanthorn[obs3]; dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie[Fr], taper,
rushlight; oil &c. (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand[obs3], moderator,
duplex; torch, flambeau, link, brand; gaselier[obs3], chandelier,
electrolier[obs3], candelabrum, candelabra, girandole[obs3], sconce,
luster, candlestick.
[non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent lamp,
tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch[Brit]; arc light; laser; maser
[microwave radiation]; neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent lamp.
[parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas.
firework, fizgig[obs3]; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c. (signal)
V. illuminate &c. (light) 420.
Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric|!, phosphorescent,
fluorescent; incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c.
(light) 420.
Phr. "blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels"
[Longfellow]; "the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky" [Campbell];
"the planets in their station list'ning stood" [Paradise Lost]; "the
Scriptures of the skies" [Bailey]; "that orbed continent, the fire that
severs day from night" [Twelfth Night].

#424. Shade. -- N. shade; awning &c. (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze, veil,
chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering. of clouds.
umbrage, glade; shadow &c. 421.
beach umbrella, folding umbrella.
V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c. v.;
cast a shadow &c. (darken) 421.
Adj. shady, umbrageous.
Phr. "welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail" [Thomson].

#425. Transparency. -- N. transparence, transparency; clarity;
translucence, translucency; diaphaneity[obs3]; lucidity, pellucidity[obs3],
limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination[obs3].
transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite[obs3], water.
V. be transparent &c. adj.; transmit light.
Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent,
tralucent|, relucent[obs3]; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as
crystal, vitreous, transpicuous[obs3], glassy, hyaline; hyaloid[Med],

#426. Opacity.-- N. opacity; opaqueness &c. adj.
film; cloud &c. 353.
V. be opaque &c. adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous[obs3]; dim &c. 422;
turbid, thick, muddy, opacous|, obfuscated, fuliginous[obs3], cloud, hazy,
misty, foggy, vaporous, nubiferous[obs3], muggy|| (turbidity) 426a.
smoky, fumid[obs3], murky, dirty.

#426a. Turbidity -- N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness,
haziness, obscurity.
nephelometer[instrument to measure turbidity].
Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous[obs3], hazy, misty,
foggy, vaporous, nubiferous[obs3]; cloudy (cloud) 353.
smoky, fumid[obs3], murky, dirty.

<-- p. 120 -->

#427. Semitransparency. -- N. semitransparency, translucency,
semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness[obs3]; gauze, muslin; film;
mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c. (cloud) 353.
[opalescent jewel] opal.
turbidity &c. 426a.
Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid[obs3],
semidiaphanous[obs3], semiopacous[obs3], semiopaque; opalescent,
opaline[obs3]; pearly, milky; frosted, nacreous.
V. opalesce.


#428. Color. -- N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade,
tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.
pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary
color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color,
secondary color, tertiary color. local color, coloring, keeping, tone,
value, aerial perspective.
[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy;
chromatism[obs3], chromatography||, chromatology[obs3].
[instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph,
spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.
pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain; medium;
mordant; oil paint &c. painting 556.
V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct[obs3], paint, wash, ingrain,
grain, illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c. (fine art) 556.
Adj. colored &c. v.; colorific[obs3], tingent[obs3], tinctorial[obs3];
chromatic, prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly-
dyed; polychromatic; chromatogenous[obs3]; tingible[obs3].
bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded[obs3]; rich, gorgeous;
gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy,
flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant, inharmonious.
mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender, refined.

#429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism. -- N. achromatism[obs3];
decoloration[obs3], discoloration; pallor, pallidness, pallidity[obs3];
paleness &c. adj.; etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white.
V. lose color &c. 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c. adj.; turn
pale, pale.
deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize, blanch,
etiolate, wash out, tone down.
Adj. uncolored &c. (see color &c. 428); colorless, achromatic,
aplanatic[obs3]; etiolate, etiolated; hueless[obs3], pale, pallid;
palefaced[obs3], tallow-faced; faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan,
sallow, dead, dingy, ashy, ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster;
discolored &c. v.
light-colored, fair, blond; white &c. 430.
pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost, pale
as a corpse, white as a corpse.

#430. Whiteness. -- N. whiteness &c. adj.; argent.
albification[obs3], etiolation; lactescence[obs3].
snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata[obs3],
eburin[obs3], German silver, white metal, barium sulphate[Chem], titanium
oxide, blanc fixe[Fr], ceruse[obs3], pearl white; white lead, carbonate of
V. be white &c. adj.
render white &c. adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch, etiolate, whitewash,
Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous[obs3], candid,
chalky; hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent[obs3],
cretaceous, lactescent[obs3].
whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c. v.; high in tone,
white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as
silver; like ivory &c. n.

<-- p. 121 -->

#431. Blackness. -- N. blackness &c. adj.; darkness &c. (want of
light). 421; swartliness[obs3], lividity, dark color, tone, color;
chiaroscuro &c. 420.
nigrification[obs3], infuscation[obs3].
jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven, crow.
[derogatory terms for black-skinned people] Negro, blackamoor, man of
color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U. S.]; coon [U. S.],
[Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink, printing
ink, printer's ink, Indian ink, India ink.
V. be black &c. adj.; render -black &c. adj.
blacken, infuscate[obs3], denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch[obs3];
smirch; darken &c. 421.
black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon,
atramentous[obs3], jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous[obs3], pitchy,
sooty, swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the
deepest dye.
black as jet &c. n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a
tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight;
nocturnal &c. (dark) 421; nigrescent[obs3]; gray &c. 432; obscure &c. 421.
Adv. in mourning.

#432. Gray. -- N. gray &c. adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and
salt, chiaroscuro, grisaille[Fr].
[Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c. 431.
Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber,
sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous[obs3]; silver,
silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous[obs3], cineritious[obs3];
grizzly, grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash-
colored; cool.

#433. Brown. -- N. brown &c. adj. bister[obs3][Pigments], ocher,
sepia, Vandyke brown.
V. render brown &c. adj.; tan, embrown[obs3], bronze.
Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous[obs3], chestnut, nut-
brown, cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous[obs3], chocolate, maroon, foxy,
tan, brunette, whitey brown[obs3]; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver-
colored; brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves;
sun-burnt; tanned &c. v.

- Primitive Colors

#434. Redness. -- N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink,
lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose[Fr], rose du Barry[obs3]; magenta,
damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high color;
warmth; gules[Heraldry].
ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.
[Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine[obs3]; ruddle[obs3],
madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto[obs3];
annatto[obs3], realgar[ISA:mineral], minium[obs3], red lead.
redness &c. adj.; rubescence[obs3], rubicundity, rubification[obs3];
erubescence[obs3], blush.
V. be red, become red &c.adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.
render red &c. adj.; redden, rouge; rubify[obs3], rubricate;
incarnadine.; ruddle[obs3].
Adj. red &c. n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine,
sanguine; rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed[obs3]; burnt; rubicund,
rubiform[obs3]; lurid, stammell blood red[obs3]; russet buff,
murrey[obs3], carroty[obs3], sorrel, lateritious[obs3]; rubineous[obs3],
rubricate, rubricose[obs3], rufulous[obs3].
rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame-
colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored,
brick-colored, dust-colored.
blushing &c. v.; erubescent[obs3]; reddened &c. v.
red as fire, red as blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red
as a lobster; warm, hot; foxy.

- Complementary Colors

#435. Greenness. -- N. green &c. adj.; blue and yellow; vert
emerald, verd antique[Fr], verdigris, malachite, beryl, aquamarine;
absinthe, creme de menthe[Fr].
[Pigments] terre verte[Fr], verditer[obs3], verdine[obs3], copperas.
greenness, verdure; viridity[obs3], viridescence[obs3];
[disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, [Jap: rokunaisho].
Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass;
emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green, olive
green, bottle green, coke bottle green.
greenish; virent[obs3], virescent[obs3].
green (learner) 541[new, inexperienced, novice], (unskillful) 699.
green [ill, sick].
Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the

<-- Footnote 1 p. 122
The author's classification of colors has been retained, though it
does not entirely accord with the theories of modern science.

<-- p. 122 -->

#436. Yellowness. -- N. yellow &c. adj.; or.
[Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow
king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment[obs3], yellow ocher, Claude tint,
aureolin[obs3]; xanthein[Chemsub], xanthin[obs3]; zaofulvin[obs3]. crocu
s, saffron, topaz; xanthite[obs3]; yolk.
jaundice; London fog|!; yellowness &c. adj.; icterus[obs3]; xantho-
cyanopia|!, xanthopsia[Med].
Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous|, citrine, fallow;
fulvous[obs3], fulvid[obs3]; sallow, luteous[obs3], tawny, creamy, sandy;
xanthic[obs3], xanthous[obs3]; jaundiced- auricomous[obs3].
gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored, lemon
yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-colored,
creamcolored; xanthocarpous[obs3], xanthochroid[obs3], xanthopous[obs3].
yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot.
warm, advancing.

#437. Purple. -- N. purple &c. adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin[obs3], amethyst; purpure[Heraldry]; heliotrope.
lividness, lividity.
V. empurple[obs3].
Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce,
mauve; livid.

#438. Blueness. -- N. blue &c. adj.; garter-blue; watchet|.
[Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen[Chemsub]; Prussian
blue, syenite blue[obs3]; bice[obs3], indigo; zaffer[obs3].
lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite[obs3].
blueness, bluishness; bloom.
Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed;
cerulescent[obs3]; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

#439. Orange. -- N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame &c. color,
[Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange[obs3], cadmium.
cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal lobelia[a
flowering plant].
V. gild, warm.
Adj. orange; ochreous[obs3]; orange-colored, gold-colored,
flame-colored, copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot,

#440. Variegation. -- N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism;
iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness, striae.
spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly,
tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre,
ocelot, ophite[obs3], mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.
check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic,
tesserae[obs3], strigae[obs3]; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin;
Joseph's coat; tricolor.
V. be variegated &c. adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker,
chequer; bespeckle[obs3], speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate,
dot, bespot[obs3]; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.
Adj. variegated &c. v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored,
party-colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor[obs3], tricolor,
versicolor[obs3]; of all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of
colors; kaleidoscopic.
iridescent; opaline[obs3], opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly,
shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant[obs3]; irisated[obs3], pavonine[obs3].
pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned,
dappled, clouded, cymophanous[obs3].
mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c. n.
spotted, spotty; punctated[obs3], powdered; speckled &c. v.; freckled,
flea-bitten, studded; flecked, fleckered[obs3]; striated, barred, veined;
brinded[obs3], brindled; tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c.
v.; daedal[obs3]; naevose[obs3], stipiform[obs3]; strigose[obs3],

<-- p. 123 -->


#441. Vision. -- N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight.
view, look, espial[obs3], glance, ken, coup d'oeil[Fr]; glimpse,
glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration[obs3], contemplation;
conspection|, conspectuity|; regard, survey; introspection; reconnaissance,
speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage[Fr], autopsy; ocular inspection,
ocular demonstration; sight-seeing.
point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.
field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon;
commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope.
visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye; retina,
pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle eyes,
gooseberry eyes.
short sight &c. 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle
sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance,
quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear eye,
sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye;
perspicacity, discernment; catopsis[obs3].
eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus[obs3].
evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Mythical].
V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make
out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken; get a sight of, have
a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a glimpse of, catch a
glimpse of; command a view of; witness, contemplate, speculate; cast the
eyes on, set the eyes on; be a spectator &c. 444 of; look on &c. (be
present) 186; see sights &c. (curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c.
(intelligence) 498.
look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look on,
look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan, inspect;
run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance round, glance
on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks upon; direct the
eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.
observe &c. (attend to) 457; watch &c. (care) 459; see with one's own
eyes; watch for &c. (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play at
look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's
eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over, gloat
on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look askance.
Adj. seeing &c. v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.
clear-eyesighted &c. n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-eyed,
visible &c. 446.
Adv. visibly &c. 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight,
at first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie[Lat].
Int. look! &c. (attention) 457.
Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; "an eye like Mars to
threaten or command" [Hamlet]; "her eyes are homes of silent prayer"
[Tennyson]; "looking before and after" [Hamlet]; "thy rapt soul sitting
in thine eyes" [Milton].

#442. Blindness. -- N. blindness, cecity[obs3], excecation|,
amaurosis[obs3], cataract, ablepsy|, ablepsia[obs3], prestriction|; dim-
sightedness &c. 443; Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena ("drop serene"),
noctograph[obs3], teichopsia[obs3].
V. be blind &c. adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged;
grope in the dark.
not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes, avert
the eyes; look another way; wink &c. (limited vision) 443; shut the eyes
to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.
render blind &c. adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put one's
eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes, pull the wool over one's eyes; jeter
de la poudre aux yeux[Fr]; screen from sight &c. (hide) 528.
Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand-
blind, stark-blind; undiscerning[obs3]; dimsighted &c. 443.
blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a
mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.
blinded &c. v.
Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly.
Phr. "O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon" [Milton].

<-- p. 124 -->

#443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness. [Fallacies of vision.] -- N.
dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight,
double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c.;
purblindness, lippitude[obs3]; myopia, presbyopia[obs3]; confusion of
vision; astigmatism; color blindness, chromato-pseudo-blepsis[obs3],
Daltonism; nyctalopia[obs3]; strabismus, strabism[obs3], squint;
blearedness[obs3], day blindness, hemeralopia[obs3], nystagmus;
xanthocyanopia[obs3], xanthopsia[Med]; cast in the eye, swivel eye, goggle-
eyes; obliquity of vision.
winking &c. v.; nictitation; blinkard[obs3], albino.
dizziness, swimming, scotomy[obs3]; cataract; ophthalmia.
[Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c. (hider) 530.
[Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus[Lat]; refraction, distortion,
illusion, false light, anamorphosis[obs3], virtual image, spectrum, mirage,
looming, phasma|; phantasm, phantasma[obs3], phantom; vision; specter,
apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423 specter of the Brocken
magic mirror[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; mirror lens &c.
(instrument) 445.
V. be dimsighted &c. n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a
mist before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see
through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant[obs3],
askant askance[obs3]; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate[obs3].
dazzle, loom.
Adj. dim-sighted &c. n.; myopic, presbyopic[obs3]; astigmatic moon-
eyed, mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind
of one eye, monoculous[obs3]; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed,
mole-eyed; dichroic.
blind as a bat &c. (blind) 442; winking &c. v.

#444. Spectator. -- N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on,
onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer; rubberneck
, rubbernecker * [U. S.].
spy; sentinel &c. (warning) 668.
V. witness, behold &c. (see) 441; look on &c. (be present) 186; gawk,
rubber *, rubberneck *[U.S.].

#445. Optical Instruments. -- N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus,
magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope,
megascope[obs3], tienoscope[obs3].
spectacles, specs [coll.],glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass,
pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft lenses,
hard lenses; sunglasses, shades[coll.].
periscopic lens[obs3]; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera
glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens,
concave lens, convexo-concave lens[obs3], coated lens, multiple lens,
compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lens,
zoom lens; optical bench.
astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector, refracting
telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path telescope, finder
telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope; radiotelescope, phased-array
telescope, Very Large Array radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared
telescope; star spectroscope; space telescope.
[telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount.
refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer.
phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting
microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope; scanning
electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron microscope.
[microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel, platform,
focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting chamber;
illuminator, light source, polarizer,
[component parts of telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs.
light pipe, fiber optics
mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass,
rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way mirror, magnifying mirror.
[room with distorting mirrors] fun house.
prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate, quarter-
wave plate.
camera lucida[Lat], camera obscura[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448;
stereopticon; chromatrope[obs3], thaumatrope[obs3]; stereoscope,
pseudoscope[obs3], polyscope[obs3], kaleidoscope.
photometer, eriometer[obs3], actinometer[obs3], lucimeter[obs3],
radiometer; ligth detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array,
X-ray diffractometer, goniometer.
spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible spectrometer,
Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, recording
spectrometer; densitometer, scanning densitometer, two-dimensional
abdominoscope[obs3], gastroscope[Med], helioscope[obs3],
polariscope[obs3], polemoscope[obs3], spectroscope.
abdominoscopy[obs3]; gastroscopy[Med]; microscopy, microscopist.

#446. Visibility. -- N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness,
distinctness &c. adj.; conspicuity[obs3], conspicuousness; appearance &c.
448; bassetting[obs3]; exposure; manifestation &c. 525; ocular proof,
ocular evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c. (vision) 441;
V. be become visible &c. adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye,
catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce
itself, discover itself, reveal itself, expose itself, betray itself;
stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out, crop
out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer, loom; glare;
burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight; heave in sight;
come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth, come forward; see the
light of day; break through the clouds; make its appearance, show its face,
appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage, float before the eyes, speak for
itself &c. (manifest) 525; attract the attention &c. 457; reappear; live in
a glass house.
expose to view &c. 525.
Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in
view, in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en evidence; unclouded,
unobscured[obs3], in the foreground.
obvious &c. (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well
defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical[obs3];
glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.
periscopic[obs3], panoramic.
before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one,  vue d'oeil[Fr], in
one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus[Lat].
Adv. visibly &c. adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c. adj.; veluti
in speculum[Lat].

#447. Invisibility. -- N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c. adj.; mystery, delitescence[obs3].
concealment &c. 528; latency &c. 526.
V. be invisible &c. adj.; be hidden &c. (hide) 528; lurk &c. (lie
hidden) 526; escape notice.
render invisible &c. adj.; conceal &c. 528; put out of sight.
not see &c. (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible[obs3], indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de
vue[French]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless;
inconspicuous, unconspicuous[obs3]; unseen &c. (see see &c. 441); covert
&c. (latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.
dim &c. (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused; indistinct,
indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-defined, ill-marked;
blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c. (opaque) 426; delitescent[obs3].
hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.
Phr. "full many a flower is born to blush unseen" [Gray].

<-- p. 125 -->

#448. Appearance. -- N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle,
show, premonstration|, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil[Fr]; lookout,
outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery, landscape,
picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en scene[Fr]; rising of the
phantasm, phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443.
pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres
chinoises[Sp]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views;
biograph[obs3], cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama,
cosmorama[obs3], georama[obs3]; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre[Fr];
pageantry &c. (ostentation) 882; insignia &c. (indication) 550. aspect,
angle, phase, phasis[obs3], seeming; shape &c. (form) 240; guise, look,
complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port, demeanor;
presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point of view, light.
lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face,
countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz[obs3],. cast of countenance,
profile, tournure[obs3], cut of one's jib, metoposcopy[obs3]; outside &c.
V. appear; be visible, become visible &c. 446; seem, look, show;
present the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of,
have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance of,
take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the appearance,
present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the semblance of,
have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the semblance of,
take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume the semblance of;
look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view; show &c. (make
manifest) 525.
Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.
Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly,
seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat]; at the first
blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.
Phr. editio princeps [Lat].

#449. Disappearance. -- N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
departure &c. 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go,
avaunt[obs3], evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c. adj.; leave no trace, leave
"not a rack behind" [Tempest]; go off the stage &c. (depart) 293; suffer
an eclipse, undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass
out of sight.
lose sight of.
efface &c. 552.
Adj. disappearing &c. v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight,
lost to view; gone.
Int. vanish! disappear! avaunt[obs3]! get lost! get out of here &c.
(ejection) 297.

<-- p. 126 -->


#450. Intellect. -- N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason,
thinking principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties,
discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties;
faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience, intelligence,
intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct, conception,
judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius; brains, cognitive
powers, intellectual powers; wit &c. 498; ability &c. (skill) 698; wisdom
&c. 498; Vernunft[Ger], Verstand[Ger].
soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia
mentis[Lat], divina particula aurae[Lat], heart's core; the Absolute,
psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.
brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium[obs3], sensory;
head, headpiece; pate, noddle[obs3], noggin, skull, scull,
pericranium[Med], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan[obs3], sconce, upper story.
[in computers] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic and logical
unit, ALU.
[Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology; mental
philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind; pneumatology[obs3],
phrenology; craniology[Med], cranioscopy[Med].
ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality &c.
317; universal concept, universal conception.
metaphysician, psychologist &c.
V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of,
be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c. (think) 451; fancy &c.
(imagine) 515.
Adj. intellectual[Relating to intellect], mental, rational,
subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic[obs3], spiritual; ghostly;
psychical[obs3], psychological; cerebral; animastic[obs3]; brainy;
hyperphysical[obs3], superphysical[obs3]; subconscious, subliminal.
immaterial &c. 317; endowed with reason.
Adv. in petto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat]; frons est animi janua [Lat][Cicero]; locos y
ninos dicen la verdad [Sp]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat][Ovid]; "my
mind is my kingdom" [Campbell]; "stern men with empires in their brains"
[Lowell]; "the mind, the music breathing from her face" [Byron]; "thou
living ray of intellectual Fire" [Falconer].

<-- differentiate between instinct and intuition. Intuition is reserved
for people. -->
#450a. Absence or want of Intellect.-- N. absence of intellect, want
of intellect &c. 450; imbecility &c. 499.: brutality, brute force.
instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned
response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.
mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.
moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c. 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain-
Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative;
moronic, idiotic, brainless [all pejorative].
Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov's dog; vegetatively.
V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

#451. Thought. -- N. thought; exercitation of the intellect[obs3],
exercise of the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation,
consideration, meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation,
pondering; head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close
study, application &c. (attention) 457.
abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study &c.
(inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of the
mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self-
consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy,
philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the
association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought, train
of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession of ideas,
flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.
after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts;
retrospection &c. (memory) 505; excogitation[obs3]; examination &c.
(inquiry) 461 invention &c. (imagination) 515.
thoughtfulness &c. adj.
V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate[obs3], consider, deliberate;
bestow thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate,
meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over; animadvert,
study; bend -, apply mind &c. (attend) 457; digest, discuss, hammer at,
weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy &c. (imagine) 515; trow[obs3].
take into consideration; take counsel &c. (be advised) 695; commune
with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the mind,
turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon, sleep upon;
take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow.
rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat
one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's wits
to work.
harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an idea
&c. 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider.
occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get into
one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run in one's
head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash on the mind,
flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on the mind, be
uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's mind.
make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind;
engross the thoughts.
Adj. thinking &c. v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective,
museful[obs3], wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious,
sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.
lost in thought &c. (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c. (intent) 457.
in the mind, under consideration.
Adv. all things considered.
Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head
turning upon, the mind running upon; "divinely, bent to meditation"
[Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin[Fr][obs3]; "fresh-
pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought" [O. Meredith]; "go speed the
stars of Thought"[Emerson]; "in maiden meditation fancy-free" [M. N.
D.]; "so sweet is zealous contemplation" [Richard III]; "the power of
thought is the magic of the Mind" [Byron]; "those that think must govern
those that toil" [Goldsmith]; "thought is parent of the deed" [Carlyle];
"thoughts in attitudes imperious" [Longfellow]; "thoughts that breathe
and words that burn" [Gray]; vivere est cogitare [Lat][Cicero]; Volk der
Dichter und Denker [Ger].

<-- p. 127 -->

#452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy. -- N.
incogitancy[obs3], vacancy, inunderstanding[obs3]; fatuity &c. 499;
thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458; vacuity.
couch potato, vegetable.
V. not think &c. 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss
from the thoughts &c. 451.
indulge in reverie &c. (be inattentive) 458.
put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the mind,
veg out.
Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal[obs3], unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c.
(inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c. 499; narrow-minded &c. 481.
unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind;
incogitable[obs3], not to be thought of.
Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani[Lat][obs3].

#453. [Object of thought.] Idea. -- N. idea, notion, conception,
thought, apprehension, impression, perception, image, [Grk],
sentiment, reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea;
archetype, formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception;
image in the mind, regulative principle.
view &c. (opinion) 484; theory &c. 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c.
(imagination) 515.point of view &c. (aspect) 448; field of view.

<-- p. 128 -->

<-- recall distinction between objective reality and perception thereof:
noumenon and phenomenon -->

#454. [Subject of thought, ] Topic. -- N. subject of
thought, material for thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
subject, subject matter; matter, theme, [Grk], topic,
what it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem; field
of inquiry; moot point, problem &c. (question) 461.
V. float in the mind, pass in the mind &c. 451.
Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis[obs3]; relative to &c. 9.


#455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity. -- N. interest, thirst for
knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind;
omnivorous intellect, devouring mind.
[person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc[Lat],
newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c. (news) 532; rubberneck;
intellectual; seeker[inquirer after religious knowledge], seeker after
V. be curious &c. adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the
ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck*[U. S.].
Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious;
inquiring &c. 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient; inquisitorial,
inquisitory[obs3]; curious as a cat; agape &c. (expectant) 507.
Phr. what's the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity
killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back. "curiouser and curiouser"
[Alice in Wonderland].

#456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity. -- N. incuriosity,
incuriousness &c. adj.; insouciance &c. 866; indifference, lack of
interest, disinterest.
boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c. 639; foreknowledge
(foresight) 510.
V. be incurious &c. adj.; have no curiosity &c. 455; take no interest
in &c. 823; mind one's own business.
Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c. 823;
uninterested, detached, aloof.

#457. Attention. -- N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c.
adj.; intentness, intentiveness[obs3]; alertness; thought &c. 451;
advertence, advertency[obs3]; observance, observation; consideration,
reflection, perpension|; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard
&c. v.; circumspection, diligence &c. (care) 459; study, scrutiny
inspection, introspection; revision, revisal.
active application, diligent application, exclusive application,
minute application, close application, intense application, deep
application, profound application, abstract application, labored
application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent attention,
exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention, intense attention,
deep attention, profound attention, abstract attention, labored attention,
deliberate attention, active thought, diligent thought, exclusive thought,
minute thought, close thought, intense thought, deep thought, profound
thought, abstract thought, labored thought, deliberate thought, active
study, diligent study, exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense
study, deep study, profound study, abstract study, labored study,
deliberate study.
minuteness, attention to detail.
absorption of mind &c. (abstraction) 458.
indication, calling attention to &c. v.
V. be attentive &c. adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view,
remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay attention
to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear to; trouble
one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy oneself with;
contemplate &c. (think of) 451; look at, look to, look after, look into,
look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind to, apply the mind to,
direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the eye to, bend the eye to,
apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the eye to, turn the attention
to, bend the attention to, apply the attention to, direct the attention to,
give the attention to; have an eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind;
take into account, take into consideration; keep in sight, keep in view;
have regard to, heed, mind, take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make
note of, take note of; note.
examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the eyes
over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip into,
perstringe|; skim &c. (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.
examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize,
consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise, pore
over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the eye on,
rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix the mind on,
devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's business.
revert to; watch &c. (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to,
listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open; come
to the point.
meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's
observation; be under consideration &c. (topic) 454.
catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the attention,
awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the attention, solicit the
attention, attract the attention, claim the attention, excite the attention,
engage the attention, occupy the attention, strike the attention, arrest
the attention, fix the attention, engross the attention, absorb the
attention, rivet the attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the
mind, invite the mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind
excite the mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest
the mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind,
catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the
thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the thoughts
excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts, strike the
thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the thoughts,
absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the mind, be
uppermost in the mind.
bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the
finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate|, indicate; direct attention to,
call attention to; show; put a mark &c. (sign) 550 upon; call soldiers to
"attention"; bring forward &c. (make manifest) 525.
Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to;
observing &c. v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied
with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed,
riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV); breathless; preoccupied
&c. (inattentive) 458; watchful &c. (careful) 459; breathless,
undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c. (expectant) 507.
[compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing, riveting.
Int. see! look, look here, look you, look to it! mark! lo! behold!
soho[obs3]! hark, hark ye! mind! halloo! observe! lo and behold! attention!
nota bene [Latin], "N.B.", note well; I'd have you to know; notice! O yes!
Oyez! dekko[obs3]! ecco[obs3]! yoho!
Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti
sat est [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; finem respice[Lat].
Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung[German];
vnimanie[Russ][Russian]; chui[Japanese].

<-- p. 129 -->

#458. Inattention. -- N. inattention, inconsideration;
inconsiderateness &c. adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency,
nonobservance, disregard.
supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; etourderie[French], want of thought;
heedlessness &c. (neglect) 460; insouciance &c. (indifference) 866.
abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation,
distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.
V. be inattentive &c. adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c. (neglect)
460 not observe &c. 457; think little of.
close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to; dismiss
from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge from one's
thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind, discharge from
one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set aside, turn aside, put
aside; turn away from, turn one's attention from, turn a deaf ear to, turn
one's back upon.
abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.
escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at the
other; forget &c. (have no remembrance) 506.
call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the
attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's head;
disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder, moider[obs3],
fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.
Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking,
unheeding, undiscerning[obs3]; inadvertent; mindless, regardless,
respectless[obs3], listless &c. (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird-
witted; hand over head; cursory, percursory[obs3]; giddy-brained, scatter-
brained, hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting[obs3], ecervele [French];
offhand; dizzy, muzzy[obs3], brainsick[obs3]; giddy, giddy as a goose;
wild, harum-scarum, rantipole[obs3], highflying; heedless, careless &c.
(neglectful) 460.
inconsiderate, thoughtless.
absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought,
wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other things,
musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c. (attentive) 457;
daydreaming, in a reverie &c. n.; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant)
508[obs3]; napping; dreamy; caught napping.
disconcerted, distracted, put out &c. v.
Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c. adj[obs3].; per
incuriam[Lat], sub silentio[Lat].
Int. stand at ease, stand easy!
Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's
wits gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind
running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a bear
it would have bitten you.

<-- p. 130 -->

#459. Care. [Vigilance.] -- N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness
&c. adj.; scruple &c. (conscientiousness) 939.
watchfulness &c. adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus[obs3],
watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre[Fr].
alertness &c. (activity) 682; attention &c. 457; prudence &c.,
circumspection &c. (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c. 510; precaution
&c. (preparation) 673; tidiness &c. (order) 58, (cleanliness) 652; accuracy
&c. (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.
V. be careful &c. adj.; reck[obs3]; take care &c. (be cautious) 864;
pay attention to &c. 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see
after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize[obs3], play
gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch, watch;
keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one's business.
look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good
lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all
one's eyes about one; watch for &c. (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open,
have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open.
Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c. v.; particular;
prudent &c. (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c. (deliberative) 451;
provident &c. (prepared) 673; alert &c. (active) 682; sure-footed.
guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre[Fr], on the alert, on watch,
on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful, wistful;
Argus-eyed; wide awake &c. (intelligent) 498; on the watch for (expectant)
tidy &c. (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c. (exact) 494;
scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c. (safe) 664[Lat].
Adv. carefully &c. adj.; with care, gingerly.
Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Latin: who will watch the
watchers?]; "care will kill a cat" [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas
[Sp]; "O polished perturbation! Golden care!" [Henry IV]; "the incessant
care and labor of his mind" [Henry IV].

#460. Neglect. -- N. neglect; carelessness &c. adj.; trifling &c. v.;
negligence; omission, oversight, laches[Law], default; supineness &c.
(inactivity) 683; inattention &c. 458; nonchalance &c. (insensibility) 823;
imprudence, recklessness &c. 863; slovenliness &c. (disorder) 59, (dirt)
653; improvidence &c. 674; noncompletion &c. 730; inexactness &c. (error)
paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis [in rhetoric].
trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.
V. be negligent &c. adj.; take no care of &c. (take care of &c. 459);
neglect; let slip, let go; lay aside, set aside, cast aside, put aside; keep
out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.
overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at,
connive at; gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no account
of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller[Fr].
scamp; trifle, fribble[obs3]; do by halves; cut; slight &c. (despise)
930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer [Fr];
take a cursory view of &c. 457.
slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit[obs3], miss,
skip, jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink;
table [parliamentary]; ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a
deaf ear to; leave out of one's calculation; not attend to &c. 457, not
mind; not trouble oneself about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble
oneself with; forget &c. 506; be caught napping &c. (not expect) 508; leave
a loose thread; let the grass grow under one's feet.
render neglectful &c. adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's
guard; distract, divert.
Adj. neglecting &c. v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless,
careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c. 575.
inconsiderate; uncircumspect[obs3], incircumspect[obs3]; off one's
guard; unwary, unwatchful[obs3], unguarded; offhand.
supine &c. (inactive) 683; inattentive &c. 458; insouciant &c.
(indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c. 863; slovenly &c. (disorderly)
59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c. (erroneous) 495; improvident &c. 674.
neglected &c. v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen,
unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted[obs3], unmarked, unattended to, unthought
of, unregarded[obs3], unremarked, unmissed[obs3]; shunted, shelved.
unexamined, unstudied, unsearched[obs3], unscanned[obs3],
unweighed[obs3], unsifted, unexplored.
abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.
Adv. negligently &c. adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded
moment &c. (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam[Lat].
Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.
Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

<-- p. 131 -->

#461. Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] -- N. inquiry; request
&c. 765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c. 622.
examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation|;
perquisition[obs3], perscrutation[obs3], pervestigation|; inquest,
inquisition; exploration; exploitation, ventilation.
sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction;
Baconian method[obs3].
strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive inquiry;
narrow search, strict search; study &c. (consideration) 451.
scire facias[Lat], ad referendum; trial.
questioning &c. v.; interrogation,
interrogatory; interpellation; challenge, examination, cross-examination,
catechism; feeler, Socratic method, zetetic philosophy[obs3]; leading
question; discussion &c. (reasoning) 476.
reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c. v.; espionage,
espionnage[Fr]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern of
question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved,
porism[obs3]; subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy;
point in dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue;
bone of contention &c. (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open
question; enigma &c. (secret) 533; knotty point &c. (difficulty) 704;
quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry.
[person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor, inspector,
querist[obs3], examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer scrutinizer[obs3];
analyst; quidnunc &c. (curiosity) 455[Lat].
V. make inquiry &c. n.; inquire, ask, seek, search.
look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter, explore,
sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go over, look
through, go through; spy, overhaul.
[transitive: object is a topic] ask about, inquire about.
scratch the head, slap the forehead.
look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner, pry
into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down, hunt
out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned.
seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace;
follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c. 662; beat up one's quarters;
fish for; feel for &c. (experiment) 463.
investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an
inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry,
carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c. n.; look at, look into;
preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate.
[inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip into,
dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound, fathom;
probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze, anatomize,
dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its phases, try in all
its phases; thresh out.
bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination; put to
the proof &c. (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take into
consideration &c. (think over) 451; take counsel &c. 695.
[intransitive] question, demand; put the question, pop the question,
propose the question, propound the question, moot the question, start the
question, raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put
forth the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go
into a question.
question[transitive: human object], put to the question, interrogate,
pump; subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question,
cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the
inquisition; dodge|!.
require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel the
get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one's ear to
the ground.
[intransitive] be in question &c. adj.; undergo examination.
Adj. inquiry &c. v.; inquisitive &c. (curious) 455; requisitive|,
requisitory[obs3]; catechetical[obs3], inquisitorial, analytic; in search
of, in quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic[obs3]; all
undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in issue,
in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration, under
investigation &c. n.; sub judice[Lat], moot, proposed; doubtful &c.
(uncertain) 475.
Adv. what? why? wherefore? whence? whither? where? quaere? how comes
it[Lat], how happens it, how is it? what is the reason? what's the matter,
what's in the wind? what on earth? when? who? nicht wahr?[Ger].

#462. Answer. -- N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder[obs3], rebutter, surrebutter[obs3], retort,
repartee; rescript, rescription[obs3]; antiphon[obs3], antiphony;
acknowledgment; password; echo; counter statement.
discovery &c. 480a; solution &c. (explanation) 522; rationale &c.
(cause) 153; clue &c. (indication) 550.
Oedipus; oracle &c. 513; return &c. (record) 551.
V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
explain &c. (interpret) 522; solve &c. (unriddle) 522; discover &c.
480a; fathom, hunt out &c. (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest, determine.
Adj. answering &c. v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
Adv. because &c. (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
Int. eureka!

<-- p. 132 -->

#463. Experiment. -- N. experiment; essay &c. (attempt) 675; analysis
&c. (investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, ttonnement.
verification, probation, experimentum crucis[Lat], proof,
(demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test, acid
test, litmus test.
crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix[obs3]; assay, ordeal; ring;
litmus paper, curcuma paper[obs3], turmeric paper; test tube; analytical
instruments &c. 633.
empiricism, rule of thumb.
feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot engine;
scout; straw to show the wind.
speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.
analyzer, analyst, assayist[obs3]; adventurer; experimenter,
experimentist[obs3], experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician.
subject, experimentee[obs3], guinea pig, experimental animal.
[experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind experiment,
double-blind experiment, controlled experiment.
poll, survey, opinion poll.
epidemiological survey[Med], retrospective analysis, retrospective
survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis; statistical analysis.
literature search, library research.
tryout, audition.
[results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c. 466;
evidence &c. 467.
[reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction.
V. experiment; essay &c. (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an
experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to
trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test,
submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch,
practice upon, try one's strength; road-test, test drive, take for a spin;
test fly.
grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, ttonner, aller 
ttons[Fr], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a trial balloon,
send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land,
test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse, see, check, check
out[coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the barometer; feel the pulse;
fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for; angle, trawl, cast one's net,
beat the bushes.
try one's fortune &c. (adventure) 675; explore &c. (inquire) 461.
Adj. experimental, empirical.
probative, probatory[obs3], probationary, provisional; analytic,
docimastic[obs3]; tentative;unverified, unproven, speculative, untested.
Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on
one's trial, on approval.
Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; "Run it up the
flagpole and see who salutes."

#464. Comparison. -- N. comparison, collation, contrast;
identification; comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.
simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c. (metaphor)
matching, pattern-matching.
[quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.
[results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination
465a[obs3]; identification 465b.
V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side,
juxtapose &c. (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one another;
contrast, balance.
identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis[Lat]..
Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c. 521.
compared with &c. v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
Adv. relatively &c. (relation) 9; as compared with &c. v.
Phr. comparisons are odious; "comparisons are odorous" [Much Ado
about Nothing].

#464a. Incomparability [Lack of comparison] -- N. incomparability;
incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c. 465a.
Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c.15.
Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for

#465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination. -- N. discrimination,
distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism[obs3]; nice perception;
perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c. 466;
nicety, refinement; taste &c. 850; critique, judgment; tact; discernment
&c. (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.
dope*, past performances.
V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize[obs3]; recognize, match,
identify; separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat,
winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split
hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble.
estimate &c. (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what,
know "a hawk from a handsaw" [Hamlet].
take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to, allow
due weight to; weigh carefully.
Adj. discriminating &c. v.; dioristic[obs3], discriminative,
distinctive; nice.
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti[Lat][obs3]; la
critique est aisee et l'art est difficile [Fr]; miles apart; a distinction
without a difference.

#465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination. -- N.
indiscrimination[obs3], indistinguishability; indistinctness,
indistinction[obs3]; uncertainty &c. (doubt) 475; incomparability &c. 464a.
V. not discriminate &c. 465; overlook &c. (neglect) 460 a distinction:
confound, confuse.
Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished|!, indistinguishable,
undistinguishable[obs3]; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.
Phr. valeat quantum valere potest[Lat.].

<-- p. 133 -->

#465b. [results of comparison. 3] Identification.-- N. identification,
recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation; dereplication;
classification; memory &c. 505; interpretation &c. 522; cognizance
(knowledge) 490.
V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember
&c. (memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place,
put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

#466. Measurement. -- N. measurement, admeasurement[obs3],
mensuration, survey, valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate,
estimation; dead reckoning, reckoning &c. (numeration) 85; gauging &c. v.;
horse power.
metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.
measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass, calipers;
gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo[obs3].
flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c. 550.
scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius[obs3]; vernier &c.
(minuteness) 193.
[instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer,
interferometer, odometer, ombrometer[obs3], pantometer[obs3],
pluviometer[obs3], pneumatometer[obs3], pneumometer[obs3], radiometer,
refractometer, respirometer, rheometer, spirometer[obs3], telemeter,
udometer[obs3], vacuometer[obs3], variometer[obs3], viameter[obs3],
thermometer, thermistor (heat &c. 382), barometer (air &c. 338), anemometer
(wind 349), dynamometer, goniometer (angle 244) meter; landmark &c. (limit)
233; balance, scale &c. (weight) 319; marigraph[obs3], pneumatograph[obs3],
stethograph[obs3]; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter(volts), ammeter(amps);
spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass spectrophotometer(molecular
mass); geiger counter, scintillation counter(radioactivity); pycnometer
(liquid density); graduated cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun
(velocity); radar (distance); side-looking radar (shape, topography); sonar
(depth in water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch,
chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color
measurability, computability, determinability[obs3].
coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude and
longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.
geometry, stereometry[obs3], hypsometry[obs3]; metage[obs3];
surveying, land surveying; geodesy, geodetics[obs3], geodesia[obs3];
orthometry[obs3], altimetry[obs3]; cadastre[Fr].
astrolabe, armillary sphere[obs3].
land surveyor; geometer.
V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate,
appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate;
span, pace step; apply the compass &c. n.; gauge, plumb, probe, sound,
fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.
take an average &c. 29; graduate.
Adj. measuring &c. v.; metric, metrical;
measurable, perceptible, noticeable, detectable, appreciable,
ponderable, determinable, fathomable;
geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic, cartographical.


#467. Evidence [On one side.] -- N. evidence; facts, premises, data,
praecognita[Lat], grounds.
indication &c. 550; criterion &c. (test) 463.
testimony, testification[obs3], expert testimony; attestation;
deposition &c. (affirmation) 535; examination.
admission &c. (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential, diploma,
voucher, certificate, doquet[obs3], docket; testamur[obs3]; record &c. 551;
document; pi
ce justificative[obs3]; deed, warranty &c. (security) 771;
signature, seal &c. (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence,
objective evidence.
witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness, material
witness, state's evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror[obs3].
oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external
evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence,
circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence[Lat],
presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof &c.
(demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.
secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support; ratification
&c. (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation[obs3], wager of law,
citation, reference; legal research, literature search (experiment)

V. be evidence &c. n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c.
(denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.
have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself &c.
(manifest) 525.
rest upon, depend upon; repose on.
bear witness &c. n.; give evidence &c. n.; testify, depose, witness,
vouch for; sign, seal, undersign[obs3], set one's hand and seal, sign and
seal, deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c.
(assent) 488.
[provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove
(demonstrate) 478.
[add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support,
ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.
adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to
witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce witnesses,
confront witnesses.
place into evidence, mark into evidence.
[obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake up
evidence; experiment &c. 463.
have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate, substantiate,
verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home to, bring to book.
Adj. showing &c. v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c. 478;
grounded on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.
Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more,
still less; raison de plus[Fr]; in corroboration &c. n. of; valeat
quantum[Lat]; under seal, under one's hand and seal.
Phr. dictum de dicto[Lat]; mise en evidence[Fr.].

<-- p. 134 -->

#468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter
Evidence. -- N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on
the other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing
evidence; disproof, refutation &c. 479; negation &c. 536.
plea &c. 617; vindication &c. 937 counter protest; "tu quoque"
argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of the
V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c. (refute) 479;
subvert &c. (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c. (deny)
536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn the scale,
alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a negative.
audire alteram partem[Lat].
Adj. countervailing &c. v.; contradictory.
unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence; supposititious.
Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

#469. Qualification. -- N. qualification, limitation, modification,
allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation, provision,
specification, sine qua non[Lat]; catch, string, strings attached;
exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause; discount &c.
813; restriction; fine print.
V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate
(sophistry) 477.
depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.
allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into account;
moderate, temper, season, leaven.
take exception.
Adj. qualifying &c. v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged;
conditional; exceptional &c. (unconformable) 83.
hypothetical &c. (supposed) 514; contingent &c. (uncertain) 475.
Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet;
according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition of
&c. (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although, though,
for all that, after all, at all events.
approximately &c. 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32;
somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a degree,
in a sense, so to speak.
with grains of allowance, cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of
salt]; exceptis excipiendis[Lat]; wind and weather permitting; if possible
&c. 470.
subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c. n.
Phr. "if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise"; catch-22.

Degrees of Evidence

#470. Possibility. -- N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what
is possible &c. adj.; compatibility &c. (agreement) 23.
practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c. adj.
contingency, chance &c. 156.
V. be possible &c. adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
render possible &c. adj.; put in the way of.
Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c. 23; likely.
practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach, within
measurable distance; accessible, superable[obs3], surmountable; attainable,
obtainable; contingent &c. (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but
improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.
Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure;
maybe, may be, haply, mayhap.
if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo
volente[Lat], D. V.; as luck may have it.
Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent[Lat]; "the glories
of the Possible are ours" [B. Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory
possible, but in practise unlikely.

<-- p. 135 -->

#471. Impossibility. -- N. impossibility &c. adj.; what cannot, what
can never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c. 859.
V. be impossible &c. adj.; have no chance whatever.
attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor white;
skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks without
straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build castles in the
air, prendre la lune avec les dents[Fr], extract sunbeams from cucumbers,
set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a sieve, catch a weasel asleep,
rompre l'anguille au genou[Fr], be in two places at once.
Adj. impossible; not possible &c. 470; absurd, contrary to reason;
unlikely; unreasonable &c. 477; incredible &c. 485; beyond the bounds of
reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of possibility;
from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c. (improbable) 473;
prodigious &c. (wonderful) 870; unimaginable, inimaginable[obs3];
impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable;
unsurmountable[obs3], insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of
reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond
control; desperate &c. (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c. 24; inaccessible,
uncomeatable[obs3], impassable, impervious, innavigable[obs3],
inextricable; self-contradictory.
out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond
one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam[Lat].
Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus[Lat]; non nostrum tantas
componere lites [Lat][Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack, chercher
une aiguille dans une botte de foin [obs3][Fr.]; il a le mer  boire[obs3].

#472. Probability. -- N. probability, likelihood; credibleness[obs3];
likeliness &c. adj.;
vraisemblance[Fr], verisimilitude, plausibility; color, semblance,
show of; presumption; presumptive evidence, circumstantial evidence;
reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance,
reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect;
prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c. 156.
V. be probable &c. adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply
&c. (evidence) 467; bid fair &c. (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a
good chance, run a good chance.
think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c. 507; count upon
&c. (believe) 484.
Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.
plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato[It], well-
founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable, presumptive,
Adv. probably &c. adj.; belike[obs3]; in all probability, in all
likelihood; very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor,
ten &c. to one; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable
expectation; prim facie[Lat]; to all appearance &c. (to the eye) 448.
Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances
are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think,
there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China

#473. Improbability. -- N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable
chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance, poor
chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long odds;
incredibility &c. 485.
V. be improbable &c. adj.; have a small chance &c. n.
Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation;
wild, far out, out of sight, outtasight, heavy [all coll.].
rare &c. (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable,
inimaginable[obs3]; incredible &c. 485; more than doubtful; strange,
bizarre (uncomformable) 83.
Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas[Lat]; pedir
peras pal olmo[Lat].

#474. Certainty. -- N. certainty; necessity &c. 601; certitude,
surety, assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c.
adj.; infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness,
gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res
judicata[Lat], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist, dogmatizer;
doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist[obs3], Sir Oracle; ipse dixit[Lat].
fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli[Fr].

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