Monday, May 25, 2009

#475 - #593

be certain &c. adj.; stand to reason.
render certain &c. adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure;
determine, decide, set at rest, "make assurance double sure" [Macbeth];
know &c. (believe) 484.
dogmatize, lay down the law.
Adj. certain, sure, assured &c. v.; solid, well-founded.
unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear,
unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.
inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless[obs3]; ineluctable.
unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c. 150; to be depended on,
trustworthy, reliable, bound.
unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable,
incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c. (proven) 478;
conclusive, without power of appeal.
indubious[obs3]; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or
shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear as
day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted, uncontested,
unquestioned, undisputed; questionless[obs3], doubtless.
authoritative, authentic, official.
sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.
evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as the
sun at noonday.
Adv. certainly &c. adj.; for certain, certes[Lat], sure, no doubt,
doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto[Lat], sure enough, to be sure,
of course, as a matter of course, a coup sur, to a certainty; in truth &c.
(truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute que coute[Fr],
coute qu'il coute[Fr]; whatever may happen, if the worst come to the worst;
come what may, happen what may, come what will; sink or swim; rain or
Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr]; there is -no question, - not a shadow of
doubt; the die is cast &c. (necessity) 601; "facts are stubborn things"

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#475. Uncertainty. -- N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness
&c. adj.; dubiety, dubitation[obs3], dubitancy|, dubitousness[obs3].
hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma,
bewilderment; timidity &c. (fear) 860; vacillation &c. 605;
diaporesis[obs3], indetermination.
vagueness &c. adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c. (darkness) 421; ambiguity
&c. (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency, double
contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c. (question)
461; onus probandi[Lat]; blind bargain, pig in a poke, leap in the dark,
something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a bottle of hay; roving
precariousness &c. adj.; fallibility.
V. be uncertain &c. adj.; wonder whether.
lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way.
not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519, not know which
way to turn, not know whether one stands on one's head or one's heels;
float in a sea of doubt,hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose one's head;
muddle one's brains.
render uncertain &c. adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex, embarrass;
confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits, throw off the
scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces[Lat]; keep in suspense.
doubt &c. (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the
balance; depend.
Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c. (aimless) 621; changeable &c. 149.
doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined; in
suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c. (inquiry)
vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined,
undefinable; confused &c. (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.
perplexing &c. v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal, problematical,
hypothetical; experimental &c. 463.
unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable,
disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.
contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on
circumstances; occasional; provisional.
unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained,
unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.
in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the
track; ignorant.&c. 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray,
adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus;
puzzled &c. v.; lost, abroad, dsorient; distracted, distraught.
Adv. pendente lite[Lat]; sub spe rati[Lat].
Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors
disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces[Lat].

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#476. Reasoning, -- N. {ant. 477} reasoning, ratiocination, rationalism;
dialectics, induction, generalization.
discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c. 461.
argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling; contention
&c. 720 logomachy[obs3]; disputation, disceptation[obs3]; paper war.
art of reasoning, logic.
process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning;
deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis.
argument; case, plaidoyer[obs3], opening; lemma, proposition, terms,
premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c.
(judgment) 480.
prosyllogism[obs3], syllogism; enthymeme[obs3], sorites[obs3],
dilemma, perilepsis[obs3], a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns
of a dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument;
empirema[obs3], epagoge[obs3].
[person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant;
controversialist, controvertist[obs3]; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic,
casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic[obs3].
logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound reasoning,
valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning, forcible reasoning,
persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning[obs3], consectary reasoning|,
conclusive &c. 478; subtle reasoning; force of argument, strong point,
strong argument, persuasive argument.
arguments, reasons, pros and cons.
V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle- argufy[obs3],
bandy words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an
argument; controvert &c. (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize upon;
spiritualize; consider &c. (examine) 461.
open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at
issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question,
ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a case.
contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c. 480.
follow from &c. (demonstration) 478.
Adj. reasoning &c. v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial,
dialectic, polemical; discursory[obs3], discursive; disputatious;
Aristotelian[obs3], eristic[obs3], eristical[obs3].
debatable, controvertible.
logical; relevant &c. 23.
Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith[obs3], then
thence so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as,
inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso[Lat], considering, in consideration of;
therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a fortiori.
in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt[Fr], on
the whole, taking one thing with another.
Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat]; per troppo dibatter la
verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

#477. [The absence of reasoning.] Intuition. [False or vicious
reasoning; show of reason.] Sophistry. -- N. intuition, instinct,
association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of thumb;
superstition; astrology[obs3]; faith (supposition) 514.
sophistry, paralogy[obs3], perversion, casuistry, jesuitry,
equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet[obs3], quiddity;
mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c. adj.; nonsense &c. 497;
word sense, tongue sense.
false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio
principii[Lat], ignoratio elenchi[Lat]; post hoc ergo propter hoc[Lat]; non
sequitur, ignotum per ignotius[Lat].
misjudgment &c. 481; false teaching &c. 538.
sophism, solecism, paralogism[obs3]; quibble, quirk, elenchus[obs3],
elench[obs3], fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet[obs3];
inconsistency, antilogy[obs3]; "a delusion, a mockery, and a snare"
[Denman]; claptrap, cant, mere words; "lame and impotent conclusion"
meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument; weak
point, bad case.
overrefinement[obs3]; hairsplitting &c. v.
V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard
a guess, talk at random.
reason ill, falsely &c. adj.; misjudge &c. 481; paralogize[obs3].
take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514.
pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over,
varnish; misteach &c. 538[obs3]; mislead &c. (error) 495; cavil, refine,
subtilize[obs3], split hairs; misrepresent &c. (lie) 544.
beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume the
cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose,
play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black is
white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a
travers[Fr][obs3], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.
judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions (misjudgment)
Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason,
anterior to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.
unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not
following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous|,
absonant[obs3]; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect;
fallacious, fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur[Latin: it does not
deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious,
hollow, plausible, ad captandum[Lat], evasive; irrelevant &c. 10.
weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague.
irrational; nonsensical &c. (absurd) 497.
foolish &c. (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling;
finespun[obs3], overrefined[obs3].
at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin.
Adv. intuitively &c. adj.; by intuition; illogically &c. adj.
Phr. non constat[Lat]; that goes for nothing.

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#478. Demonstration. -- N. {ant. 479} demonstration, proof, rigorous
proof; conclusiveness &c. adj.; apodeixis[obs3], apodixis[obs3], probation,
logic of facts &c. (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c. (test)
463[Lat]; argument &c. 476; rigorous establishment, absolute establishment.
conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.
V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest
&c. (be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c.
467 settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at rest.
make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c. (judge) 480.
follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow
necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
convince, persuade (belief) 484.
Adj. demonstrating &c. v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic[obs3], apodeictic[obs3],
apodeictical[obs3]; irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.
categorical, decisive, crucial.
demonstrated &c. v.; proven; unconfuted[obs3], unanswered,
unrefuted[obs3]; evident &c. 474.
deducible, consequential, consectary[obs3], inferential, following.
[demonstrated to one's satisfaction] convincing, cogent, persuasive
(believable) 484.
Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course;
necessarily, of necessity.
Phr. probatum est[Lat]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est
demonstrandum[Lat], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat[Lat].

#479. Confutation. -- N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer,
complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution[obs3], invalidation;
exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock down
argument, tu quoque argument[Lat]; sockdolager * [obs3][U. S.].
correction &c. 527a; dissuasion &c. 616.
V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut,
confound, disconfirm, redargue[obs3], expose, show the fallacy of, defeat;
demolish, break &c. (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the
winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence;
clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown[obs3], stop the
mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.
not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet.
be confuted &c.; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak point.
counter evidence &c. 468.
Adj. confuting, confuted, &c. v.; capable of refutation; refutable,
confutable[obs3], defeasible.
contravene (counter evidence) 468.
condemned on one's own showing,condemned out of one's own mouth.
Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio[Lat], it does
not hold water, "suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo" [Terence]; his argument was
demolished by new evidence.

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#480. Judgment. [Conclusion.] -- N. result, conclusion, upshot;
deduction, inference, ergotism[Med]; illation; corollary, porism[obs3];
estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication[obs3];
dijudication[obs3], adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement[obs3],
arbitration; assessment, ponderation[obs3]; valorization.
award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.
decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence, decree;
findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata[Lat].
plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c. (choice) 609; opinion &c.
(belief) 484; good judgment &c. (wisdom) 498.
judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee.
censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c. 524; inspector,
inspecting officer.
twenty-twenty hindsight[judgment after the fact]; armchair general,
monday morning quarterback.
V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at
a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind.
deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a deduction,
weet|, ween[obs3].
form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess, rate,
rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c. (believe) 484;
review; size up *.
settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce,
rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give judgment,
deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award, report; bring in a
verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest; confirm &c. (assent) 488.
comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c. (examine) 457;
investigate &c. (inquire) 461.
hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause.
Adj. judging &c. v.; judicious &c. (wise) 498; determinate,
Adv. on the whole, all things considered.
Phr. "a Daniel come to judgment" [Merchant of Venice]; "and stand a
critic, hated yet caress'd" [Byron]; "it is much easier to be critical than
to be correct" [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l'art est
difficile[Fr]; "nothing if not critical" [Othello]; "O most lame and
impotent conclusion" [Othello].

#480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery. -- N. discovery,
detection, disenchantment; ascertainment[obs3], disclosure, find,
trover &c.(recovery) 775[Law].
V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c. 539; fix upon; pick
up; find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret
out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to light;
dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter.
solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack
open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key to
the riddle; interpret &c. 522; disclose &c. 529.
trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger, lay one's hands
upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c. 494; put the saddle
on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head.
be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff,
catch a whiff of, smell a rat.
open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true colors,
see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.
pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop upon;
come across, come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with.
recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify.
Int. eureka! aha[obs3]! I've got it!

#481. Misjudgment. -- N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment;
miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c. (error) 495; hasty
[causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication[obs3],
prejudice; foregone conclusion; prenotion[obs3], prevention, preconception,
predilection, prepossession, preapprehension[obs3], presumption,
assumption, presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; ide fixe; mentis
gratissimus error[Lat]; fool's paradise.
[causes of misjudgment.2] esprit de corps, party spirit, partisanship,
clannishness, prestige.
[causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad,
quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.
[causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind, partial
views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-sided ideas,
partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial ideas, one-sided
conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions, confined conceptions,
superficial conceptions, one-sided notions, partial notions, narrow
notions, confined notions, superficial notions; narrow mind; bigotry &c.
(obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum[Lat]; pedantry; hypercriticism.
doctrinaire &c. (positive) 474.
[causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c. 482; underestimation &c.
[causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c. 491. erroneous
assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions, incorrect assumptions
(error) 495.
V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink[obs3], misconjecture[obs3],
misconceive &c. (error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate,
misreckon, miscompute.
overestimate &c. 482; underestimate &c. 483.
prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate[obs3];
dogmatize; have a bias &c. n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba
magistri[Lat], run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a
conclusion, leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump
to conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced
eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one's nose; dare
pondus fumo[Lat]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c. (blunder) 699.
give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice, prepossess.
Adj. misjudging &c. v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c. v.;
jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.
narrow-minded, narrow-souled[obs3]; mean-spirited; confined,
illiberal, intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete[Fr],
positive, dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative[obs3]; opinioned,
opinionate, opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an
opinion, opinitre; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy,
impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c. 499; credulous &c 486; warped.
misjudged &c. v.
Adv. ex parte[Lat].
Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful
thinking; unshakable conviction; "my mind is made up - don't bother me with
the facts".

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#482. Overestimation. -- N. overestimation &c. v.; exaggeration &c.
549; vanity &c. 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist. much cry and little
wool, much ado about nothing; storm in a teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine
V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh,
overreckon[obs3], overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly,
attach too much importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at
straws; strain, magnify; exaggerate &c. 549; set too high a value upon;
think much of, make much of, think too much of, make too much of;
outreckon[obs3]; panegyrize[obs3].
extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of, make
the worst of; make two bites of a cherry.
have too high an opinion of oneself &c. (vanity) 880.
Adj. overestimated &c. v.; oversensitive &c. (sensibility) 822.
Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes[Lat].

#483. Underestimation. -- N. underestimation; depreciation &c.
(detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c. v.; modesty &c.
V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon[obs3];
depreciate; disparage &c. (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize,
disprize; ridicule &c. 856; slight &c. (despise) 930; neglect &c. 460; slur
make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account of;
belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at naught; shake
off as dewdrops from the lion's mane.
Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c. v.; unvalued, unprized[obs3].

#484. Belief. -- N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust,
troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c. (hope) 858;
dependence on, reliance on.
persuasion, conviction, convincement[obs3], plerophory[obs3], self-
conviction; certainty &c. 474; opinion, mind, view; conception, thinking;
impression &c. (idea) 453; surmise &c. 514; conclusion &c. (judgment) 480.
tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c. (assent)
firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-rooted
belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief, inveterate
belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief, impartial belief,
well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion, settled opinion, fixed
rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion, unshaken opinion, steadfast
opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion, sober opinion, dispassionate
opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded opinion &c.; uberrima
system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of
faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda[obs3],
creed; thirty-nine articles &c. (orthodoxy) 983a; catechism; assent &c.
488; propaganda &c. (teaching) 537.
credibility &c. (probability) 472.
V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see,
realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it;
consider, esteem, presume.
count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one's faith upon, reckon
upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one's account for;
make sure of.
make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on credit;
take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach some weight
know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be, rest
assured &c. adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy oneself; make
up one's mind.
give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one's trust in; place
in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one's word for, at one's word;
place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to.
think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive,
trow[obs3], ween[obs3], fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess,
entertain a belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get
hold of a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have
an opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an
opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion,
hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an
opinion &c. n.
view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as, regard as, esteem
as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as; surmise &c. 514.
get it into one's head, take it into one's head; come round to an
opinion; swallow &c. (credulity) 486.
cause to be believed &c. v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of, gain
the confidence of, assure; convince, convict|!, convert; wean, bring round;
bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c. (teach) 537; cram down the throat;
produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home to.
go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c. v., be current
&c. adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind.
Adj. believing &c. v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure,
satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure.
under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated with.
confiding, suspectless[obs3]; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of
suspicion; credulous &c. 486; wedded to.
believed &c. v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected.
worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable,
trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c. 472;
fiducial[obs3], fiduciary; persuasive, impressive.
relating to belief, doctrinal.
Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice[Lat];
meseems[obs3], methinks; to the best of one's belief; I dare say, I doubt
not, I have no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c. (certainty) 474; depend
upon, rely upon it; be assured, rest assured; I'll warrant you &c.
(affirmation) 535.
Phr. experto crede [Lat][Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat]; Justitiae
soror incorrupta Fides[Lat]; "live to explain thy doctrine by thy life"
[Prior]; "stands not within the prospect of belief" [Macbeth]; tarde quae
credita laedunt credimus [Lat][Ovid]; vide et crede [Lat].

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#485. Unbelief. Doubt.-- N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit,
miscreance[obs3]; infidelity &c. (irreligion) 989[obs3]; dissent &c. 489;
change of opinion &c. 484; retraction &c. 607.
doubt &c. (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving,
demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt[obs3], suspicion, jealousy,
scruple, qualm; onus probandi[Lat].
incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.
[person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c. 487.
V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c. 484; misbelieve[obs3];
refuse to admit &c. (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c. (incredulity) 487.
doubt; be doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be
skeptical as to &c. adj.; diffide|; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke,
scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts,
suspicions; have one's doubts.
demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider, waver.
hang in suspense, hang in doubt.
throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question;
question, challenge, dispute; deny &c. 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise a
doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion;
startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger one's
faith, stagger one's belief.
Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical.
[transitive] incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to,
shy as to, suspicious of; doubting &c. v.
doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; disputable; unworthy of, undeserving of
belief &c. 484; questionable; suspect, suspicious; open to suspicion, open
to doubt; staggering, hard to believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be
believed, inconceivable; impossible &c. 471.
fallible &c. (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c.
(untrue) 495.
Adv. cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of salt]; with grains of
Phr. fronti nulla fides[Lat]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat][Vergil];
"timeo Danaos et dona ferentes" [Latin: I fear the Greeks even when
bearing gifts][Vergil], beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus
Apella [Lat][Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua
est suspicio [Lat][Syrus].

#486. Credulity. -- N. credulity, credulousness &c. adj.;
cullibility|, gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion,
self deception; superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c. (obstinacy)
606; hyperorthodoxy &c. 984[obs3]; misjudgment &c. 481.
credulous person &c (dupe) 547.
V. be credulous &c. adj.; jurare in verba magistri[Lat]; follow
implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take for
gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a
conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green cheese;
take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at straws,
grasp at straws.
impose upon &c. (deceive) 545.
Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c. 545; simple, green,
soft, childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over
confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c.
(believing) 484.
Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile
[Lat][Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que
reluce[Sp]; omne ignotum pro magnifico[Lat].

<-- p. 142 -->

#487. Incredulity.-- N. incredulousness[obs3], incredulity;
skepticism, pyrrhonism|!; want of faith &c. (irreligion) 989[obs3].
suspiciousness &c. adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c. (unbelief) 485.
mistrust, cynicism.
unbeliever, skeptic, cynic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c.
(heterodox) 984.
V. be incredulous &c. adj.; distrust &c. (disbelieve) 485; refuse to
believe; shut one's eyes to, shut one's ears to; turn a deaf ear to; hold
aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri[Lat].
Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible[obs3]; hard of
belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe;
suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful, cynical.

1The word miscreant, which originally meant simply misbeliever, has now
quite another meaning (949). See Trench, On the Study of Words, p. 71.

#488. Assent. -- N. assent, assentment[obs3]; acquiescence, admission;
nod; accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c. 23; affirmance,
affirmation; recognition, acknowledgment, avowal; confession of faith.
unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox populi;
popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public opinion;
concurrence &c. (of causes) 178; cooperation &c. (voluntary) 709.
ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance, visa;
indorsement &c. (record) 551[obs3].
consent &c. (compliance) 762.
pressure to conform, herd instinct, peer pressure.
V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c.
23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent,
coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c. adj.; go along with,
chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one's views,
agree in opinion; vote, give one's voice for; recognize; subscribe to,
conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say aye to.
acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c. (yield)
762; come round to; abide by; permit &c. 760.
arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to terms,
come to an agreement.
confirm, affirm; ratify, approve, indorse, countersign; corroborate
&c. 467.
go with the stream, swim with the stream, go with the flow, blow with
the wind; be in fashion, join in the chorus, join the crowd, be one of the
guys, be part of the group, go with the crowd, don't make waves; be in
every mouth.
Adj. assenting &c. v; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at
one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c. 602.
uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted.
carried, agreed, nem[abbr]. con. &c. adv[abbr: nemine contradicente].;
unanimous; agreed on all hands, carried by acclamation.
affirmative &c. 535.
Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well
and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, "thou hast said", you said
it, you said a mouthful; truly, exactly, precisely, that's just it, indeed,
certainly, you bet, certes[Lat], ex concesso[Lat]; of course,
unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless; naturally, natch.
be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c. 602.
affirmatively, in the affirmative.
OK, all right, might as well, why not?
with one consent, with one voice, with one accord; unanimously, una
voce, by common consent, in chorus, to a man; nem[abbr]. con.[abbr: nemine
contradicente], nemine dissentiente[Lat]; without a dissentient voice; as
one man, one and all, on all hands.
Phr. avec plaisir[Fr]; chi tace accousente[It][obs3]; "the public mind
is the creation of the Master-Writers" [Disraeli]; you bet your sweet ass
it is; what are we waiting for? whenever you're ready; anytime you're

#489. Dissent.-- N. dissent; discordance &c. (disagreement) 24;
difference diversity of opinion.
nonconformity &c. (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy, schism;
disaffection; secession &c. 624; recantation &c. 607.
dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c. 832; cavilling.
protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c (rejection)
dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist;
sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.
refusal &c. 764.
V. dissent, demur; call in question &c. (doubt) 485; differ in
opinion, disagree; say no &c. 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil,
protest, raise one's voice against, repudiate; contradict &c. (deny) 536.
have no notion of, differ toto caelo[Lat]; revolt at, revolt from the
shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant[obs3].
secede; recant &c. 607.
Adj. dissenting &c. v; negative &c. 536; dissident, dissentient;
unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring[obs3]; protestant,
recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.
unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.
discontented &c. 832; unwilling &c. 603; extorted.
sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.
Adv. no &c. 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.
Int. God forbid! not for the world; I'll be hanged if; never tell me;
your humble servant, pardon me.
Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Lat][Terence];
tant s'en faut[Fr]; il s'en faut bien[Fr];no way; by no means; count me

<-- p. 143 -->

#490. Knowledge.-- N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence|;
acquaintance, experience, ken, privity[obs3], insight, familiarity;
comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c. (judgment) 480;
intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition;
light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn;
scent, suspicion; impression &c. (idea) 453; discovery &c. 480a.
system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy,
pansophy[obs3]; acroama|!; theory, aetiology[obs3], etiology; circle of the
sciences; pandect[obs3], doctrine, body of doctrine; cyclopedia,
encyclopedia; school &c. (system of opinions) 484.
tree of knowledge; republic of letters &c. (language) 560.
erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters; literature;
book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania[obs3],
bibliolatry[obs3]; information, general information; store of knowledge
&c.; education &c. (teaching) 537; culture, menticulture[obs3],
attainments; acquirements, acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency;
practical knowledge &c. (skill) 698; liberal education; dilettantism;
rudiments &c (beginning) 66.
deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate
knowledge, acroatic knowledge[obs3], acroamatic knowledge[obs3], vast
knowledge, extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic
learning; omniscience, pantology[obs3].
march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science, advance
of learning; schoolmaster abroad.
[person who knows much] scholar &c. 492.
V. know, ken, scan, wot[obs3]; wot aware[obs3], be aware &c. adj.- of;
ween[obs3], weet[obs3], trow[obs3], have, possess.
conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy*
[U.S.], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive, see,
get a sight-of, experience.
know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of; be
au courant &c. adj.; have in one's head, have at one' fingers ends; know by
heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des cartes[Fr],
know what's what &c. 698.
see one's way; discover &c. 480a.
come to one's knowledge &c. (information) 527.
Adj. knowing &c. v.; cognitive; acroamatic[obs3].
aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made acquainted
with; privy to, no stranger to; au -fait, au courant; in the secret; up to,
alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let into; apprized of,
informed of; undeceived.
proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong with, at
home in; conversant with, familiar with.
erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well
informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd,
savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book-
learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught.
known &c. v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received,
notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words,
familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, trivial, commonplace.
cognoscible[obs3], cognizable.
Adv. to one's knowledge, to the best of one's knowledge.
Phr. one's eyes being opened &c. (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c'est
tout pardonner[French: to know all is to pardon all]; empta dolore docet
experientia[Lat];[Grk]; "half our knowledge we must
snatch not take" [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher[German: years teach
more than books]; "knowledge comes but wisdom lingers"[Tennyson];
"knowledge is power" [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes [Fr]; nec scire
fas est omnia [Lat][Horace]; "the amassed thought and experience of
innumerable minds" [Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht

<-- p. 144 -->

#491. Ignorance. -- N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa[Lat], crass
ignorance, ignorance crasse[Fr]; unfamiliarity, unacquaintance[obs3];
unconsciousness &c. adj.; darkness, blindness; incomprehension,
inexperience, simplicity.
unknown quantities, x, y, z.
sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark
[Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism[obs3], glimmering,
dilettantism; bewilderment &c. (uncertainty) 475; incapacity.
[Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism[obs3];
Philister[obs3], Philistine.
V. be ignorant &c. adj.; not know &c. 490; know not, know not what,
know nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have
the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese.
ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c. (conceal) 528.
see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, have a
glimmering &c. n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c.
(unintelligibility) 519; not pretend to take upon, not take upon one self
to say.
Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprised,
unapprized[obs3], unwitting, unweeting|, unconscious; witless,
weetless[obs3]; a stranger to; unconversant[obs3].
uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught,
uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenlightened; Philistine;
behind the age.
shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned, illiterate;
unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered, unbookish; empty-
headed, dizzy, wooly-headed; pedantic;
in the dark; benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked;
misinformed; au bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at
sea &c. (uncertain) 475; caught tripping.
unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained,
uninvestigated[obs3], unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c.
528; novel.
Adv. ignorantly &c. adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows;
not that one knows.
Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows.
Phr. "ignorance never settles a question" [Disraeli]; quantum animis
erroris inest[Lat]! [Ovid]; "small Latin and less Greek" [B. Jonson]; "that
unlettered small-knowing soul" [Love's Labor's Lost]; "there is no darkness
but ignorance" [Twelfth NIght].

#492. Scholar.-- N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit,
schoolman[obs3], professor, graduate, wrangler; academician,
academist[obs3]; master of arts, doctor, licentitate, gownsman;
philosopher, master of math; scientist, clerk; sophist, sophister[obs3];
linguist; glossolinguist, philologist; philologer[obs3]; lexicographer,
glossographer; grammarian; litterateur[Fr], literati, dilettanti,
illuminati, cogniscenti[It]; fellow, Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah,
munshi[obs3], Sanskritish; sinologist, sinologue[obs3]; Mezzofanti[obs3],
admirable Crichton, Mecaenas.
bookworm, helluo librorum[Lat]; bibliophile, bibliomaniac[obs3];
bluestocking, bas-bleu[Fr]; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium
Baccalaureus[Lat][obs3], Artium Magister[Lat].
learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum[Lat]; man of
learning, man of letters, man of education, man of genius.
antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist.
sage &c. (wise man) 500.
pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr. Pangloss; pantologist[obs3],
schoolboy &c. (learner) 541.
Adj. learned &c. 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel.
Phr. "he was a scholar and a ripe and good one" [Henry VIII]; "the
manifold linguist" [All's Well That Ends Well].

#493. Ignoramus.-- N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.
[insulting terms for ignorant person: see also imbecility 499, folly
501] moron, imbecile, idiot; fool, jerk, nincompoop, asshole [vulgar].
[person with superficial knowledge] dilettante, sciolist[obs3],
smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.
greenhorn, amateur &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541;
lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c. 501; pedant &c 492.
Adj. bookless[obs3], shallow; ignorant &c. 491.
Phr. "a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits" [Pope].

<-- p. 145 -->

#494. [Object of knowledge.] Truth. -- N. fact, reality &c.
(existence) 1; plain fact, plain matter of fact; nature &c. (principle) 5;
truth, verity; gospel, gospel truth, God's honest truth; orthodoxy &c.
983a; authenticity; veracity &c. 543; correctness, correctitude[obs3].
accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c. adj.; precision,
delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork precision
&c. (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety.
orthology[obs3]; ipsissima verba[Lat]; realism.
plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed truth,
unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth; nuda
veritas[Lat]; the very thing; not an -illusion &c 495; real Simon Pure;
unvarnished tale, unvarnished truth; the truth the whole truth and nothing
but the truth; just the thing.
V. be true &c. adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring;
hold good, hold true, hold water.
render true, prove true &c. adj.; substantiate &c. (evidence) 467.
get at the truth &c. (discover) 480a.
Adj. real, actual &c. (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct;
certain &c. 474; substantially true, categorically true, definitively true
&c; true to the letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious &c. 543;
unreconfuted[obs3], unconfuted[obs3]; unideal[obs3], unimagined; realistic.
exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just, just so, so;
strict, severe; close &c. (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous;
scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual,
mathematical, scientific; faithful, constant, unerring; curious,
particular, nice, delicate, fine; clean-cut, clear-cut.
verified, empirically true, experimentally verified, substantiated,
proven (demonstrated) 478.
rigorously true, unquestionably true.
true by definition.
genuine, authentic, legitimate; orthodox &c. 983a; official, ex
pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated,
unvarnished, unalloyed, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka[obs3].
well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid;
undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic,
Adv. truly &c. adj.; verily, indeed, really, in reality; with truth
&c. (veracity) 543; certainly &c. (certain) 474; actually &c. (existence)
1; in effect &c (intrinsically) 5.
exactly &c. adj.; ad amussim[Lat]; verbatim, verbatim et literatim
[Lat]; word for word, literally, literatim[Lat], totidem vervis[Lat], sic,
to the letter, chapter and verse, ipsissimis verbis[Lat]; ad unguem[Lat];
to an inch; to a nicety, to a hair, to a tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied
de la lettre [Fr]; neither more nor less; in every respect, in all
respects; sous tous les rapports[Fr]; at any rate, at all events; strictly
Phr. the truth is, the fact is; rem acu tetigisti[obs3][Lat]; en
suivant la verite [Fr]; ex facto jus oritur [Lat]; la verita e figlia del
empo [It]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Spanish: crazy people and
children tell the truth]; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Lat][Cicero];
veritas nunquam perit [Lat][Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Lat][Seneca];
"the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth"; "just the facts,
ma'am, just the facts." [Dragnet].

#495. Error. -- N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension,
misstanding[obs3], misunderstanding; inexactness &c. adj.; laxity;
misconstruction &c. (misinterpretation) 523; miscomputation &c.
(misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c. 477; mis-statement, mis-report;
mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes, oversight,
misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose thread; trip,
stumble &c. (failure) 732; botchery &c. (want of skill) 699[obs3]; slip of
the tongue, slip of the lip, Freudian slip; slip of the pen; lapsus
linguae[Lat], clerical error; bull &c. (absurdity) 497; haplography[obs3].
illusion, delusion; snare; false impression, false idea; bubble; self-
decit, self-deception; mists of error.
heresy &c. (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c. (insanity) 503; false
light &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (fancy) 515; fable &c.
(untruth) 546; bias &c. (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c. v.
V. be erroneous &c. adj.
cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray, lead into error; beguile,
misinform &c. (misteach) 538[obs3]; delude; give a false impression, give a
false idea; falsify, misstate; deceive &c. 545; lie &c. 544.
err; be -in error &c. adj., be mistaken &c. v.; be deceived &c.
(duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall
into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c. n.; be in the wrong,
blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon, miscount,
miscalculate &c. (misjudge) 481.
play at cross purposes, be at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret) 523.
trip, stumble; lose oneself &c. (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail &c.
732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c. (mismanage)
699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without one's host; take the
shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream &c (imagine) 515.
Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious,
apocryphal, unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c. 4; heretical
&c. (heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c. 477.
inexact, unexact inaccurate[obs3], incorrect; indefinite &c.
(uncertain) 475.
illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515; spurious
&c. 545; deceitful &c. 544; perverted.
controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy.
exploded, refuted; discarded.
in error, under an error &c. n.; mistaken &c. v.; tripping &c. v.;
out, out in one's reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the mark,
wide of the truth, way off, far off; astray &c (at fault) 475; on a false
scent, on the wrong scent; in the wrong box, outside the ballpark; at cross
purposes, all in the wrong; all out.
Adv. more or less.
Phr. errare est humanum[Lat]; mentis gratissimus error [Lat][Horace];
"on the dubious waves of error tost" [Cowper]; "to err is human, to forgive
divine" [Pope]; "you lie -- under a mistake" [Shelley].

<-- p. 146 -->

#496. Maxim.-- N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm[obs3];
dictum, saying, adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot[Fr], motto, word,
byword, moral, phylactery, protasis[obs3].
axiom, theorem, scholium[obs3], truism, postulate.
first principles, a priori fact, assumption (supposition) 514.
reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden rule
&c. (precept) 697; principle, principia[Lat]; profession of faith &c.
(belief) 484; settled principle, accepted principle, formula.
accepted fact.
received truth, wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted
maxim, recognized maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed saying,
trite saying, commonplace saying &c.
Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric[obs3]; axiomatic, gnomic.
Adv. as the saying goes, as the saying is, as they say.

#497. Absurdity. -- N. absurdity, absurdness &c. adj.; imbecility &c.
499; alogy|, nonsense, utter nonsense; paradox, inconsistency;
stultiloquy[obs3], stultiloquence[obs3]; nugacity[obs3].
blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism|!, Hibernicism|!; slipslop[obs3];
anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c. 477.
farce, galimathias[obs3], amphigouri[obs3], rhapsody; farrago &c
(disorder) 59; betise[Fr]; extravagance, romance; sciamachy[obs3].
sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic[obs3].
jargon, fustian, twaddle, gibberish &c (no meaning) 517; exaggeration
&c 549; moonshine, stuff; mare's nest, quibble, self-delusion.
vagary, tomfoolery, poppycock, mummery, monkey trick, boutade[Fr],
V. play the fool &c. 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a
travess[Fr]; battre la campagne[Fr][obs3]; ; be -
absurd &c. adj.
Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless,
inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self-
contradictory; macaronic[obs3], punning.
foolish &c. 499; sophistical &c. 477; unmeaning &c. 517; without rhyme
or reason; fantastic.
Int. fiddlededee! pish! pho[obs3]! "in the name of the Prophet--figs!"
[Horace Smith].
Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Lat][Horace]; tell it to the marines.

<-- p. 147 -->

#498. Intelligence. Wisdom. -- N. intelligence, capacity,
comprehension, understanding; cuteness, sabe * [obs3][U.S.], savvy *
[U.S.]; intellect &c. 450; nous[Fr], parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit,
esprit, gumption, quick parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.;
acumen, subtlety, penetration, perspicacy[obs3], perspicacity; discernment,
due sense of, good judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c. 702;
refinement &c (taste) 850.
head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle-
glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk.
wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense [U.S.],
plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c. adj; judgment;
solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach of thought,
compass of thought; enlargement of mind.
genius, inspiration, geist[Ger], fire of genius, heaven-born genius,
soul; talent &c. (aptitude) 698.
[Wisdom in action] prudence &c. 864; vigilance &c. 459; tact &c 698;
foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast.
a bright thought, not a bad idea.
Solomon-like wisdom.
V. be -intelligent &c. adj.; have all one's wits about one; understand
&c. (intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take
a hint.
see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into, see
through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c 510.
discriminate &c. 465; know what's what &c. 698; listen to reason.
Adj. intelligent[Applied to persons], quick of apprehension, keen,
acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen
witted, clear witted, sharp- eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-awake;
canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510; discerning,
perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute[obs3]; quick-witted, nimble-
witted, needle-witted; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; alive to &c
(cognizant) 490; clever &c. (apt) 698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas si
bete[Fr]; acute &c 682.
wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in one's
right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens[Lat], judicious, strong-minded.
unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted[obs3], unprepossessed[obs3];
undazzled[obs3], unperplexed[obs3]; unwarped judgment[obs3], impartial,
equitable, fair.
cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long-
sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound.
oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born.
prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate, politic,
wise in one's generation; watchful &c. 459; provident &c (prepared) 673; in
advance of one' age; wise as a serpent, wise as Solomon, wise as Solon.
[Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well-
thought-out, well-planned, well-judged, well-advised; prudent, politic;
expedient &c. 646.
Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet[Lat]; "but with the morning
cool reflection came" [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum[Lat]; les affaires
font les hommes[Fr]; mas vale saber que haber[Sp]; mas vale ser necio que
profiadol nemo solus sapit [Lat][Plautus]; nosce te[Lat]; seauton/gr>[Grk]; nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit
[Lat][Seneca, from Aristotle]; sapere aude [Lat][Horace]; victrix fortunae
sapientia [Lat][Juvenal].

#499. Imbecility. Folly -- N. want of -intelligence &c. 498, want of -
intellect &c. 450; shadowness[obs3], silliness, foolishness &c. adj.;
imbecility, incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, weakness of
intellect, clouded perception, poor head, apartments to let; stupidity,
stolidity; hebetude[obs3], dull understanding, meanest capacity,
shortsightedness; incompetence &c (unskillfulness) 699.
one's weak side, not one's strong point; bias &c 481; infatuation &c.
(insanity) 503.
simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility[obs3], second
childishness, fatuity; idiocy, idiotism[obs3]; driveling.
folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity[obs3],
inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c. 477; giddiness &c
(inattention) 458; eccentricity &c. 503; extravagance &c (absurdity) 497;
rashness &c. 863.
act of folly &c. 699.
b. be - imbecile &c adj.; have no -brains, have no sense &c. 498.
trifle, drivel, radoter[obs3], dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the
fool, play the monkey, monkey around, fool around; take leave of one's
senses (insanity) 503; not see an inch beyond one's nose; stultify oneself
&c. 699; talk nonsense &c. 497.
Adj. unintelligent[Applied to persons], unintellectual, unreasoning;
mindless, witless, reasoningless[obs3], brainless; halfbaked; having no
head &c. 498; not -bright &c. 498; inapprehensible[obs3].
weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle
headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed[obs3],
chuckle headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded[obs3]; beef
headed, fat witted, fat-headed.
weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-brained;
rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short witted, dull
witted, blunt-witted, shallow-pated[obs3], clod-pated[obs3], addle-
pated[obs3]; dim-sighted, short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak in the upper
shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as a
beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse[obs3], obtuse, blunt, stolid, doltish;
asinine; inapt &c. 699; prosaic &c. 843; hebetudinous[obs3].
childish, child-like; infantine[obs3], infantile, babyish,
babish[obs3]; puerile, anile; simple &c. (credulous) 486; old-womanish.
fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant;
sottish; bewildered &c.475.
blockish[obs3], unteachable Boeotian, Boeotic; bovine; ungifted,
undiscerning[obs3], unenlightened, unwise, unphilosophical[obs3]; apish;
foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical, inept;
narrow-minded &c. 481; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; giddy &c.
(thoughtless) 458; rash &c. 863; eccentric &c. (crazed) 503.
[Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper,
unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, absurd, idiotic, silly, stupid,
asinine; ill-imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised; mal
entendu[Fr]; inconsistent, irrational, unphilosophical[obs3]; extravagant
&c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless, idle; pointless, useless &c. 645;
inexpedient &c. 647; frivolous &c. (trivial) 643.
Phr. Davus sum non [Lat][Oedipus]; "a fool's bolt is soon shot"
clitellae bovi sunt impositae [obs3][Henry V.][Lat][Cicero]; "fools rush
in where angels fear to tread" [Pope]; il n' a ni bouche ni eperon [Fr];
"the bookful blockhead, ignorantly read" [Pope]; "to varnish nonsense with
the charms of sound" [Churchill].

<-- p. 148 -->

#500. Sage -- N. sage, wise man; genius; master mind, master spirit of
the age; longhead[obs3], thinker; intellectual, longhair.
authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus
Apollo[Lat][obs3], Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, "second Daniel."
man of learning &c. 492; expert &c. 700; wizard &c. 994.
[Ironically] wiseacre, bigwig, know-it-all; poor man's Einstein.
Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.
Phr. barba tenus sapientes[Lat].

#501. Fool. -- N. fool, idiot, tomfool, wiseacre, simpleton,
witling[obs3], dizzard[obs3], donkey, ass; ninny, ninnyhammer[obs3];
chowderhead[obs3], chucklehead[obs3]; dolt, booby, Tom Noddy, looby[obs3],
hoddy-doddy[obs3], noddy, nonny, noodle, nizy[obs3], owl; goose,
goosecap[obs3]; imbecile; gaby[obs3]; radoteur[obs3], nincompoop,
badaud[obs3], zany; trifler, babbler; pretty fellow; natural, niais[obs3].
child, baby, infant, innocent, milksop, sop.
oaf, lout, loon, lown[obs3], dullard, doodle, calf, colt, buzzard,
block, put, stick, stock, numps[obs3], tony.
bull head, dunderhead, addlehead[obs3], blockhead, dullhead[obs3],
loggerhead, jolthead[obs3], jolterhead[obs3], beetlehead[obs3],
beetlebrain, grosshead[obs3], muttonhead, noodlehead, giddyhead[obs3];
numbskull, thickskull[obs3]; lackbrain[obs3], shallowbrain[obs3]; dimwit,
halfwit, lackwit[obs3]; dunderpate[obs3]; lunkhead
sawney[obs3][U.S.], gowk[obs3]; clod, clod-hopper; clod-poll, clot-
poll, clot-pate; bull calf; gawk, Gothamite, lummox, rube [U.S.]; men of
Boeotia, wise men of Gotham.
un sot a triple etage[Fr], sot; jobbernowl[obs3], changeling,
mooncalf, gobemouche[obs3].
dotard, driveler; old fogey, old woman, crock; crone, grandmother;
cotquean[obs3], henhussy[obs3].
incompetent (insanity) 503.
greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; dunce &c (ignoramus) 493; lubber &c (bungler)
701; madman &c 504.
one who will not set the Thames on fire; one who did not invent
gunpowder, qui n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr]; no conjuror.
Phr. fortuna favet fatuis[Lat]; les fous font les festinas et les
sages les mangent [Fr]; nomina stultorum parietibus harrent [Lat];
stultorum plena sunt omnia [Lat][Cicero].

#502. Sanity. -- N. sanity; soundness &c. adj.; rationality, sobriety,
lucidity, lucid interval; senses, sober senses, right mind, sound mind,
mens sana[Lat].
V. be sane &c. adj.; retain one's senses, retain one's reason.
become sane &c. adj.; come to one's senses, sober down.
render sane &c. adj; bring to one's senses, sober.
Adj. sane, rational, reasonable, compos mentis, of sound mind; sound,
sound-minded; lucid.
self-possessed; sober, sober-minded.
in one's sober senses, in one's right mind; in possession of one's
Adv. sanely &c.adj.

<-- p. 149 -->

#503. Insanity. -- N. disordered reason, disordered intellect;
diseased mind, unsound mind, abnormal mind; derangement, unsoundness;
psychosis; neurosis; cognitive disorder; affective disorder[obs3].
insanity, lunacy; madness &c. adj.; mania, rabies, furor, mental
alienation, aberration; paranoia, schizophrenia; dementation[obs3],
dementia, demency[obs3]; phrenitis[obs3], phrensy[obs3], frenzy, raving,
incoherence, wandering, delirium, calenture of the brain[obs3]; delusion,
hallucination; lycanthropy[obs3]; brain storm|!.
vertigo, dizziness, swimming; sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr],
fanaticism, infatuation, craze; oddity, eccentricity, twist, monomania
(caprice) 608; kleptodipsomania[obs3]; hypochondriasis &c. (low spirits)
837[Med]; melancholia, depression, clinical depression, severe depression;
hysteria; amentia[obs3].
screw loose, tile loose, slate loose; bee in one's bonnet, rats in the
upper story.
dotage &c. (imbecility) 499.
V. be insane &c. adj.
become insane &c. adj; lose one's senses, lose one's reason, lose
one's faculties, lose one's wits; go mad, run mad, lose one's marbles
[coll.], go crazy, go bonkers [coll.], flip one's wig [coll.], flip one's
lid[coll.], flip out[coll.], flip one's bush [coll.].
rave, dote, ramble, wander; drivel &c. (be imbecile) 499; have a screw
loose &c. n., have a devil; avoir le diable au corps[Fr]; lose one's head
&c. (be uncertain) 475.
render mad, drive mad &c adj.; madden, dementate[obs3], addle the
wits, addle the brain, derange the head, infatuate, befool[obs3]; turn the
brain, turn one's head; drive one nuts [coll.].
Adj. insane, mad, lunatic, loony[coll.]; crazy, crazed, aliene[obs3],
non compos mentis; not right, cracked, touched; bereft of reason; all
possessed, unhinged, unsettled in one's mind; insensate, reasonless, beside
oneself, demented, daft; phrenzied[obs3], frenzied, frenetic; possessed,
possessed with a devil; deranged, maddened, moonstruck; shatterpated[obs3];
mad-brained, scatter brained, shatter brained, crackbrained; touched,
tetched [dialect]; off one's head.
[behavior suggesting insanity] maniacal; delirious, lightheaded,
incoherent, rambling, doting, wandering; frantic, raving, stark staring
mad, stark raving mad, wild-eyed, berserk; delusional, hallucinatory.
[behavior somewhat resembling insanity] corybantic[obs3], dithyrambic;
rabid, giddy, vertiginous, wild; haggard, mazed; flighty; distracted,
distraught; depressed; agitated, hyped up; bewildered &c. (uncertain) 475.
mad as a March hare, mad as a hatter; of unsound mind &c. n.; touched
in one's head, wrong in one's head, not right in one's head, not in one's
right mind, not right in one's wits, upper story; out of one's mind, out of
one's wits, out of one's skull [coll.], far gone, out of one's senses, out
of one's wits; not in one's right mind.
fanatical, infatuated, odd, eccentric; hypped[obs3], hyppish[obs3];
spaced out [coll.].
imbecile, silly, &c. 499.
Adv. like one possessed.
Phr. the mind having lost its balance; the reason under a cloud; tet
exaltee[French], tet montee[French]; ira furor brevis est[Latin]; omnes
stultos insanire [Latin][Horace].

#504. Madman. -- N. madman, lunatic, maniac, bedlamite[obs3],
candidate for Bedlam, raver[obs3], madcap, crazy; energumen[obs3];
automaniac[obs3], monomaniac, dipsomaniac, kleptomaniac; hypochondriac &c.
(low spirits); crank, Tom o'Bedlam.
dreamer &c. 515; rhapsodist, seer, highflier[obs3], enthusiast,
fanatic, fanatico[Sp]; exalte[French]; knight errant, Don Quixote.
idiot &c. 501.

<-- p. 150 -->

1. To the Past

#505. Memory.-- N. memory, remembrance; retention, retentiveness;
tenacity; veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; tablets of the memory; readiness.
reminiscence, recognition, recollection, rememoration[obs3];
recurrence, flashback; retrospect, retrospection.
afterthought, post script, PS.
suggestion &c. (information) 527; prompting &c. v.; hint, reminder;
remembrancer[obs3], flapper; memorial &c. (record) 551; commemoration &c.
(celebration) 883.
[written reminder] note, memo, memorandum;
things to be remembered, token of remembrance, memento, souvenir,
keepsake, relic, memorabilia.
art of memory, artificial memory; memoria technica[Lat]; mnemonics,
mnemotechnics[obs3]; phrenotypics[obs3]; Mnemosyne.
prompt-book; crib sheet, cheat sheet.
retentive memory, tenacious memory, photographic memory, green
memory|!, trustworthy memory, capacious memory, faithful memory, correct
memory, exact memory, ready memory, prompt memory, accurate recollection;
perfect memory, total recall.
celebrity, fame, renown, reputation &c. (repute) 873.
V. remember, mind; retain the memory of, retain the remembrance of;
keep in view.
recognize, recollect, bethink oneself, recall, call up, retrace; look
back, trace back, trace backwards; think back, look back upon; review; call
upon, recall upon, bring to mind, bring to remembrance; carry one's
thoughts back; rake up the past.
have in the thoughts, hold in the thoughts, bear in the thoughts,
carry in the thoughts, keep in the thoughts, retain in the thoughts, have
in the memory, hold in the memory, bear in the memory, carry in the memory,
keep in the memory, retain in the memory, have in the mind, hold in the
mind, bear in the mind, carry in the mind, keep in the mind, retain in the
mind, hold in remembrance; be in one's thoughts, live in one's thoughts,
remain in one's thoughts, dwell in one's thoughts, haunt one's thoughts,
impress one's thoughts, be in one's mind, live in one's mind, remain in
one's mind, dwell in one's mind, haunt one's mind, impress one's mind,
dwell in one's memory.
sink in the mind; run in the head; not be able to get out of one's
head; be deeply impressed with; rankle &c. (revenge) 919.
recur to the mind; flash on the mind, flash across the memory.
[cause to remember] remind; suggest &c. (inform ) 527; prompt; put in
mind, keep in mind, bring to mind; fan the embers; call up, summon up, rip
up; renew; infandum renovare dolorem [Lat]; jog the memory, flap the
memory, refresh the memory, rub up the memory, awaken the memory; pull by
the sleeve; bring back to the memory, put in remembrance, memorialize.
task the memory, tax the memory.
get at one's fingers' ends, have at one's fingers', learn at one's
fingers', know one's lesson, say one's lesson, repeat by heart, repeat by
rote; say one's lesson; repeat, repeat as a parrot; have at one's fingers'
[transitive] commit to memory, memorize; con over, con; fix in the
memory, rivet in the memory, imprint in the memory, impress in the memory,
stamp in the memory, grave in the memory, engrave in the memory, store in
the memory, treasure up in the memory, bottle up in the memory, embalm in
the memory, enshrine in the memory; load the memory with, store the memory
with, stuff the memory with, burden the memory with.
redeem from oblivion; keep the memory alive, keep the wound green,
pour salt in the wound, reopen old wounds'; tangere ulcus[obs3][Lat]; keep
up the memory of; commemorate &c. (celebrate) 883.
make a note of, jot a note, pen a memorandum &c. (record) 551.
Adj. remembering, remembered &c. v.; mindful, reminiscential[obs3];
retained in the memory &c. v.; pent up in one's memory; fresh; green, green
in remembrance; unforgotten, present to the mind; within one's memory &c.
n.; indelible; uppermost in one's thoughts; memorable &c. (important) 642.
Adv. by heart, by rote; without book, memoriter[obs3].
in memory of; in memoriam; memoria in aeterna[Lat]; suggestive.
Phr. manet alta mente repostum [Lat][Vergil]; forsan et haec olim
meminisse juvabit [Lat][Vergil]; absens haeres non erit [Lat]; beatae
memoriae [Lat]; "briefly thyself remember" [Lear]; mendacem memorem esse
oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; "memory the warder of the brain" [Macbeth];
parsque est meminisse doloris [Lat][Ovid]; "to live in hearts we leave
behind is not to die" [Campbell]; vox audita peril littera scripta manet
[Lat]; out of sight, out of mind.

#506. Oblivion.-- N. oblivion, obliviousness, lethe; forgetfulness &c.
adj.; amnesia; obliteration &c. 552 of, insensibility &c. 823 to the past.
short memory, treacherous memory, poor memory, loose memory, slippery
memory, failing memory; decay of memory, failure of memory, lapse of
memory; waters of Lethe, waters of oblivion.
amnesty, general pardon.
[deliberate or unconscious forgetting] repressed memory.
V. forget; be forgetful &c. adj.; fall into oblivion, sink into
oblivion; have a short memory &c. n., have no head.
forget one's own name, have on the tip of one's tongue, come in one
ear and go out the other.
slip memory, escape memory, fade from memory, die away from the
memory; lose, lose sight of.
fail to recall, not be able to recall.
[cause oneself to forget: transitive] unlearn; efface &c. 552,
discharge from the memory; consign to oblivion, consign to the tomb of the
Capulets; think no more of &c. (turn the attention from) 458; cast behind
one's back, wean one's thoughts from; let bygones be bygones &c.(forgive)
Adj. forgotten &c. v.; unremembered, past recollection, bygone, out of
mind; buried in oblivion, sunk in oblivion; clean forgotten; gone out of
one's head, gone out of one's recollection.
forgetful, oblivious, mindless, Lethean; insensible &c. 823 to the
past; heedless.
Phr. non mi ricordo[It]; the memory failing, the memory deserting one,
being at (or in) fault.

<-- p. 151 -->

#507. Expectation. -- N. expectation, expectance, expectancy;
anticipation, reckoning, calculation; foresight &c. 510.
contemplation, prospection[obs3], lookout; prospect, perspective,
horizon, vista; destiny &c. 152.
suspense, waiting, abeyance; curiosity &c. 455; anxious expectation,
ardent expectation, eager expectation, breathless expectation, sanguine
expectation; torment of Tantalus.
hope &c. 858; trust &c. (belief) 484; auspices &c. (prediction) 511;
assurance, confidence, presumption, reliance.
V. expect; look for, look out for, look forward to; hope for;
anticipate; have in prospect, have in contemplation; keep in view;
contemplate, promise oneself; not wonder &c. 870 at, not wonder if.
wait for, tarry for, lie in wait for, watch for, bargain for; keep a
good lookout for, keep a sharp lookout for; await; stand at "attention,"
abide, bide one's time, watch.
foresee &c. 510; prepare for &c. 673; forestall &c. (be early) 132;
count upon &c. (believe in) 484; think likely &c. (probability) 472.
lead one to expect &c. (predict) 511; have in store for &c. (destiny)
prick up one's ears, hold one's breath.
Adj. expectant; expecting &c. v.; in expectation &c. n.; on the watch
&c. (vigilant) 459; open-eyed, open-mouthed, in wide-eyed anticipation;
agape, gaping, all agog; on tenterhooks, on tiptoe, on the tiptoe of
expectation; aux aguets[obs3]; ready; curious &c. 455; looking forward to.
expected &c. v.; long expected, foreseen; in prospect &c. n.;
prospective; in one's eye, in one's view, in the horizon, on the horizon,
just over the horizon, just around the corner, around the corner; impending
&c. (destiny) 152.
Adv. on the watch &c. adj.; with breathless expectation &c. n.; with
bated breath, with rapt anticipation; arrectis auribus[Lat].
Phr. we shall see; nous verrons[Fr]; "expectation whirls me round"
[Troilus and Cressida]; the light at the end of the tunnel.

#508. Inexpectation. -- N. inexpectation[obs3], non-expectation; false
expectation &c. (disappointment) 509; miscalculation &c. 481.
surprise, sudden burst, thunderclap, blow, shock, start; bolt out of
the blue; wonder &c. 870; eye opener.
unpleasant surprise, pleasant surprise.
V. not expect &c. 507; be taken by surprise; start; miscalculate &c.
481; not bargain for; come upon, fall upon.
be unexpected &c. adj.; come unawares &c. adv.; turn up, pop, drop
from the clouds; come upon one, burst upon one, flash upon one, bounce upon
one, steal upon one, creep upon one; come like a thunder clap, burst like a
thunderclap, thunder bolt; take by surprise, catch by surprise, catch
unawares, catch napping; yach [obs3][S. Africa].
pounce upon, spring a mine upon.
surprise, startle, take aback, electrify, stun, stagger, take away
one's breath, throw off one's guard; astonish, dumbfound &c. (strike with
wonder) 870.
Adj. nonexpectant[obs3]; surprised &c. v.; unwarned, unaware; off
one's guard; inattentive 458.
unexpected, unanticipated, unpredicted[obs3], unlooked for,
unforeseen, unhoped for; dropped from the clouds; beyond expectation,
contrary to expectation, against expectation, against all expectation; out
of one's reckoning; unheard of &c. (exceptional) 83; startling, surprising;
sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113.
unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
Adv. abruptly, unexpectedly, surprisingly; plump, pop, a
l'improviste[Fr], unawares; without notice, without warning, without a "by
your leave"; like a thief in the night, like a thunderbolt; in an unguarded
moment; suddenly &c. (instantaneously) 113.
Int. heydey[obs3]! &c. (wonder) 870.
Phr. little did one think, little did one expect; nobody would ever
suppose, nobody would ever think, nobody would ever expect; who would have
thought? it beats the Dutch|!.

#509. [Failure of expectation.] Disappointment.-- N. disappointment;
blighted hope, balk; blow; anticlimax; slip 'twixt cup and lip;
nonfulfillment of one's hopes; sad disappointment, bitter disappointment;
trick of fortune; afterclap; false expectation, vain expectation;
miscalculation &c. 481; fool's paradise; much cry and little wool.
V. be disappointed; look blank, look blue; look aghast, stand aghast
&c. (wonder) 870; find to one's cost; laugh on the wrong side of one's
mouth; find one a false prophet.
not realize one's hope, not realize one's expectation.
[cause to be disappointed] disappoint; frustrate, discomfit, crush,
defeat (failure) 732; crush one's hope, dash one's hope, balk one's hope,
disappoint one's hope, blight one's hope, falsify one's hope, defeat one's
hope, discourage; balk, jilt, bilk; play one false, play a trick; dash the
cup from the lips, tantalize; dumfound, dumbfound, dumbfounder, dumfounder
(astonish) 870.
Adj. disappointed &c. v.; disconcerted, aghast; disgruntled; out of
one's reckoning.
Phr. the mountain labored and brought forth a mouse; parturiunt
montes[Lat]; nascitur ridiculus mus [Lat][Horace]; diis aliter
visum[Lat][obs3], the bubble burst; one's countenance falling.

<-- p. 152 -->

#510. Foresight. -- N. foresight, prospicience[obs3], prevision, long-
sightedness; anticipation; providence &c. (preparation) 673.
forethought, forecast; predeliberation[obs3], presurmise[obs3];
foregone conclusion &c. (prejudgment) 481; prudence &c. (caution) 864.
foreknowledge; prognosis; precognition, prescience, prenotion[obs3],
presentiment; second sight; sagacity &c. (intelligence) 498;
antepast[obs3], prelibation[obs3], prophasis[obs3].
prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foretaste; prospectus &c. (plan) 626.
V. foresee; look forwards to, look ahead, look beyond; scent from
afar; look into the future, pry into the future, peer into the future.
see one's way; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, see how
the wind blows, test the waters, see how the cat jumps.
anticipate; expect &c. 507; be beforehand &c. (early) 132; predict &c.
511; foreknow, forejudge, forecast; presurmise[obs3]; have an eye to the
future, have an eye to the main chance; respicere finem[Lat]; keep a sharp
lookout &c. (vigilance) 459; forewarn &c. 668.
Adj. foreseeing &c. v.; prescient; farseeing, farsighted; sagacious
&c. (intelligent) 498; weatherwise[obs3]; provident &c. (prepared) 673;
prospective &c. 507.
Adv. against the time when.
Phr. cernit omnia Deus vindex[Lat]; mihi cura futuri[Lat]; run it up
the flagpole and see who salutes.

#511. Prediction.-- N. prediction, announcement; program, programme
&c. (plan) 626[Brit]; premonition &c. (warning) 668; prognosis, prophecy,
vaticination, mantology[obs3], prognostication, premonstration|; augury,
auguration|; ariolation|, hariolation|; foreboding, aboding[obs3];
bodement[obs3], abodement[obs3]; omniation|, omniousness[obs3]; auspices,
forecast; omen &c. 512; horoscope, nativity; sooth[obs3], soothsaying;
fortune telling, crystal gazing; divination; necromancy &c. 992.
[Divination by the stars] astrology[obs3], horoscopy[obs3], judicial
[obs3] adytum[Place of prediction].
prefiguration[obs3], prefigurement; prototype, type.
[person who predicts] oracle &c. 513.
V. predict, prognosticate, prophesy, vaticinate, divine, foretell,
soothsay, augurate[obs3], tell fortunes; cast a horoscope, cast a nativity;
advise; forewarn &c. 668.
presage, augur, bode; abode, forebode; foretoken, betoken; prefigure,
preshow[obs3]; portend; foreshow[obs3], foreshadow; shadow forth, typify,
pretypify[obs3], ominate[obs3], signify, point to.
usher in, herald, premise, announce; lower.
hold out expectation, raise expectation, excite expectation, excite
hope; bid fair, promise, lead one to expect; be the precursor &c 64.
[predict by mathematical or statistical means from past experience]
extrapolate, project.
Adj. predicting &cv.; predictive, prophetic; fatidic[obs3],
fatidical[obs3]; vaticinal, oracular, fatiloquent[obs3], haruspical,
Sibylline; weatherwise[obs3].
ominous, portentous, augurous[obs3], augurial, augural;
auspicial[obs3], auspicious; prescious[obs3], monitory, extispicious[obs3],
premonitory, significant of, pregnant with, bit with the fate of.
Phr. "coming events cast their shadows before" [Campbell]; dicamus
bona verba[Lat]; "there buds the promise of celestial worth" [Young].

[1] The following terms, expressive of different forms of divination,
have been collected from various sources, and are here given as a curious
illustration of bygone superstitions:-
Divination by oracles, Theomancy[obs3]; by the Bible, Bibliomancy; by
ghosts, Psychomancy[obs3]; by crystal gazing, Crystallomancy[obs3]; by
shadows or manes, Sciomancy; by appearances in the air, Aeromancy[obs3],
Chaomancy[obs3]; by the stars at birth, Genethliacs; by meteors,
Meteoromancy[obs3]; by winds, Austromancy[obs3]; by sacrificial
appearances, Aruspicy (or Haruspicy)[obs3], Hieromancy[obs3],
Hieroscopy[obs3]; by the entrails of animals sacrificed, Extispicy[obs3],
Hieromancy[obs3]; by the entrails of a human sacrifice,
Anthropomancy[obs3]; by the entrails of fishes, Ichthyomancy[obs3]; by
sacrificial fire, Pyromancy[obs3]; by red-hot iron, Sideromancy[obs3]; by
smoke from the altar, Capnomancy[obs3]; by mice, Myomancy[obs3]; by birds,
Orniscopy[obs3], Ornithomancy[obs3]; by a cock picking up grains,
Alectryomancy (or Alectromancy)[obs3]; by fishes, Ophiomancy[obs3]; by
herbs, Botanomancy[obs3]; by water, Hydromancy[obs3]; by fountains,
Pegomancy[obs3]; by a wand, Rhabdomancy; by dough of cakes,
Crithomancy[obs3]; by meal, Aleuromancy[obs3], Alphitomancy[obs3]; by salt,
Halomancy[obs3]; by dice, Cleromancy[obs3]; by arrows, Belomancy[obs3]; by
a balanced hatchet, Axinomancy[obs3]; by a balanced sieve,
Coscinomancy[obs3]; by a suspended ring, Dactyliomancy[obs3]; by dots made
at random on paper, Geomancy[obs3]; by precious stones, Lithomancy[obs3];
by pebbles, Pessomancy[obs3]; by pebbles drawn from a heap,
Psephomancy[obs3]; by mirrors, Catoptromancy[obs3]; by writings in ashes,
Tephramancy[obs3]; by dreams, Oneiromancy[obs3]; by the hand, Palmistry,
Chiromancy; by nails reflecting the sun's rays, Onychomancy[obs3]; by
finger rings, Dactylomancy[obs3]; by numbers, Arithmancy[obs3]; by drawing
lots, Sortilege[obs3]; by passages in books, Stichomancy[obs3]; by the
letters forming the name of the person, Onomancy[obs3], Nomancy; by the
features, Anthroposcopy[obs3]; by the mode of laughing, Geloscopy[obs3]; by
ventriloquism, Gastromancy[obs3]; by walking in a circle, Gyromancy[obs3];
by dropping melted wax into water, Ceromancy[obs3]; by currents, Bletonism;
by the color and peculiarities of wine, Oenomancy[obs3].

<-- p. 153 -->

#512. Omen.-- N. omen, portent, presage, prognostic, augury, auspice;
sign &c. (indication) 550; harbinger &c. (precursor) 64; yule candle|!.
bird of ill omen; signs of the times; gathering clouds; warning &c.
prefigurement &c. 511.
Adj. ill-boding.
Phr. auspicium melioris aevi[Lat][obs3].

#513. Oracle.-- N. oracle; prophet, prophesier, seer, soothsayer,
augur, fortune teller, crystal gazer[obs3], witch, geomancer[obs3],
aruspex[obs3]; aruspice[obs3], haruspice[obs3]; haruspex; astrologer, star
gazer[obs3]; Sibyl; Python, Pythoness[obs3]; Pythia; Pythian oracle,
Delphian oracle; Monitor, Sphinx, Tiresias, Cassandra[obs3], Sibylline
leaves; Zadkiel, Old Moore; sorcerer &c. 994; interpreter &c. 524.
[person who predicts by non-mystical (natural) means] predictor,
prognosticator, forecaster; weather forecaster, weatherman.
Phr. a prophet is without honor in his own country; "you don't need a
weatherman to know which way the wind blows" [Bob Dylan].


#514. Supposition.-- N. supposition, assumption, assumed position,
postulation, condition, presupposition, hypothesis, blue sky hypothesis,
postulate, postulatum[Lat], theory; thesis, theorem; data; proposition,
position; proposal &c. (plan) 626; presumption &c. (belief) 484;
conjecture; guess, guesswork, speculation; rough guess, shot, shot in
the dark [coll.]; conjecturality[obs3]; surmise, suspicion, sneaking
suspicion; estimate, approximation (nearness) 197.
inkling, suggestion, hint, intimation, notion, impression; bare
supposition, vague supposition, loose supposition, loose suggestion.
association of ideas, (analogy) 514a; metonym[Gram], metonymy[Gram],
simile (metaphor) 521.
conceit, idea, thought; original idea, invention (imagination) 515.
V. suppose, conjecture, surmise, suspect, guess, divine; theorize;
presume, presurmise[obs3], presuppose; assume, fancy, wis[obs3], take it;
give a guess, speculate, believe, dare say, take it into one's head, take
for granted; imagine &c. 515.
put forth; propound, propose; start, put a case, submit, move, make a
motion; hazard out, throw out a suggestion, put forward a suggestion, put
forward conjecture.
allude to, suggest, hint, put it into one's head.
suggest itself &c. (thought) 451; run in the head &c. (memory) 505;
marvel if, wonder if, wonder whether.
Adj. supposing &c. v.; given, mooted, postulatory[obs3]; assumed &c.
v.; supposititious, suppositive[obs3], suppositious; gratuitous,
speculative, conjectural, hypothetical, theoretical, academic, supposable,
presumptive, putative; suppositional.
suggestive, allusive.
Adv. if, if so be; an; on the supposition &c. n.;ex hypothesi[Lat]; in
the case, in the event of; quasi, as if, provided; perhaps &c. (by
possibility) 470; for aught one knows.

<-- p. 154 -->
<-- under creative thought we should include a separate section on analogy,
metaphor, association etc. distinct from 521?? -->
#514a. Analogy -- N. analogy, association, association of ideas.
metaphor &c. 521.
analogical thinking; free association; train of thought.
Adj. analogical.

#515. Imagination. -- N. imagination; originality; invention; fancy;
inspiration; verve.
warm imagination, heated imagination, excited imagination, sanguine
imagination, ardent imagination, fiery imagination, boiling imagination,
wild imagination, bold imagination, daring imagination, playful
imagination, lively imagination, fertile imagination, fancy.
"mind's eye"; "such stuff as dreams are made of" [Tempest].
ideality, idealism; romanticism, utopianism, castle-building.
dreaming; phrensy[obs3], frenzy; ecstasy, extasy[obs3]; calenture &c.
(delirium) 503[obs3]; reverie, trance; day dream, golden dream;
conception, Vorstellung[Ger], excogitation[obs3], "a fine frenzy";
cloudland[obs3], dreamland; flight of fancy, fumes of fancy; "thick coming
fancies" [Macbeth]; creation of the brain, coinage of the brain; imagery.
conceit, maggot, figment, myth, dream, vision, shadow, chimera;
phantasm, phantasy; fantasy, fancy; whim, whimsey[obs3], whimsy; vagary,
rhapsody, romance, gest[obs3], geste[obs3], extravaganza; air drawn dagger,
bugbear, nightmare.
flying Dutchman, great sea serpent, man in the moon, castle in the
air, pipe dream, pie-in-the-sky, chateau en Espagne[Fr]; Utopia,
Atlantis[obs3], happy valley, millennium, fairyland; land of Prester John,
kingdom of Micomicon; work of fiction &c. (novel) 594; Arabian
nights[obs3]; le pot au lait[Fr]; dream of Alnashar &c. (hope) 858[obs3].
illusion &c. (error) 495; phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; Fata
Morgana &c. (ignis fatuus) 423[Lat]; vapor &c. (cloud) 353; stretch of the
imagination &c. (exaggeration) 549; mythogenesis[obs3].
idealist, romanticist, visionary; mopus[obs3]; romancer, dreamer;
somnambulist; rhapsodist &c. (fanatic) 504; castle-buildier, fanciful
V. imagine, fancy, conceive; idealize, realize; dream, dream of, dream
up; "give to airy nothing a local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's
create, originate, devise, invent, coin, fabricate; improvise, strike
out something new.
set one's wits to work; strain one's invention, crack one's invention;
rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, cudgel one's brains;
excogitate[obs3]; brainstorm.
give play, give the reins, give a loose to the imagination, give
fancy; indulge in reverie.
visualize, envision, conjure up a vision; fancy oneself, represent
oneself, picture, picture-oneself, figure to oneself; vorstellen[Ger].
float in the mind; suggest itself &c. (thought) 451.
Adj. imagined &c. v.; ben trovato[It]; air drawn, airbuilt[obs3].
imagining &cv. v, imaginative; original, inventive, creative, fertile.
romantic, high flown, flighty, extravagant, fanatic, enthusiastic,
unrealistic, Utopian, Quixotic.
ideal, unreal; in the clouds, in nubibus[Lat]; unsubsantial[obs3] &c.
4; illusory &c. (fallacious) 495.
fabulous, legendary; mythical, mythic, mythological; chimerical;
imaginary, visionary; notional; fancy, fanciful, fantastic,
fantastical[obs3]; whimsical; fairy, fairy-like; gestic[obs3].
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; aegri somnia
vana[Lat][obs3]; dolphinum appingit sylvis in fluctibus aprum
[obs3][Latin][Horace]; "fancy light from fancy caught" [Tennyson];
"imagination rules the world" [Napoleon]; l'imagination gallope[Fr], le
jugement ne va que le pas[French]; musaeo contingens cuncta lepore
[Latin][Lucretius]; tous songes sont mensonges[French]; Wahrheil und



#516. [Idea to be conveyed.] Meaning. [Thing signified.] -- N.
meaning; signification, significance; sense, expression; import, purport;
force; drift, tenor, spirit, bearing, coloring; scope.
[important part of the meaning] substance; gist, essence, marrow,
spirit &c. 5.
matter; subject, subject matter; argument, text, sum and substance.
general meaning, broad meaning, substantial meaning, colloquial
meaning, literal meaning, plain meaning, simple meaning, natural meaning,
unstrained meaning, true &c. (exact) 494 meaning, honest &c. 543 meaning,
prima facie &c. (manifest) 525 meaning[Lat]; letter of the law.
literally; after acceptation.
synonym; implication, allusion &c. (latency) 526; suggestion &c.
(information) 527; figure of speech &c. 521; acceptation &c.
(interpretation) 522.
V. mean, signify, express; import, purport; convey, imply, breathe,
indicate, bespeak, bear a sense; tell of, speak of; touch on; point to,
allude to; drive at; involve &c. (latency) 526; declare &c. (affirm) 535.
understand by &c. (interpret) 522.
Adj. meaning &c. v.; expressive, suggestive, allusive; significant,
significative[obs3], significatory[obs3]; pithy; full of meaning, pregnant
with meaning.
declaratory &c. 535; intelligible &c. 518; literal; synonymous;
tantamount &c. (equivalent) 27; implied &c. (latent) 526; explicit &c. 525.
Adv. to that effect; that is to say &c. (being interpreted) 522.

<-- p. 155 -->

#517. [Absence of meaning.] Unmeaningness. -- N. meaninglessness,
unmeaningness &c. adj[obs3].; scrabble.
empty sound, dead letter, vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]; "a tale told by
an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing"; "sounding brass and
a tinkling cymbal."
nonsense, utter nonsense, gibberish; jargon, jabber, mere words,
hocus-pocus, fustian, rant, bombast, balderdash, palaver, flummery,
verbiage, babble, baverdage, baragouin[obs3], platitude, niaiserie[obs3];
inanity; flap-doodle; rigmarole, rodomontade; truism; nugae canorae[Lat];
twaddle, twattle, fudge, trash, garbage, humbug; poppy-cock [U.S.]; stuff,
stuff and nonsense; bosh, rubbish, moonshine, wish-wash, fiddle-faddle;
absurdity &c. 497; vagueness &c. (unintelligibility) 519.
[routine or reflexive statements without substantive thought, esp.
legal] boilerplate.
V. mean nothing; be unmeaning &c. adj.; twaddle, quibble, scrabble.
Adj. unmeaning; meaningless, senseless; nonsensical; void of sense &c.
inexpressive, unexpressive; vacant; not significant &c. 516;
trashy, washy, trumpery, trivial, fiddle-faddle, twaddling, quibbling.
unmeant, not expressed; tacit &c. (latent) 526.
inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

#518. Intelligibility. -- N. intelligibility; clearness, explicitness
&c. adj.; lucidity, comprehensibility, perspicuity; legibility, plain
speaking &c. (manifestation) 525; precision &c. 494; synetoisy/gr>[Grk][Grk]; a word to the wise.
V. be intelligible &c. adj.; speak for itself, speak volumes; tell its
own tale, lie on the surface.
render intelligible &c. adj.; popularize, simplify, clear up;
elucidate &c. (explain) 522.
understand, comprehend, take, take in; catch, grasp, follow, collect,
master, make out; see with half an eye, see daylight, see one's way; enter
into the ideas of; come to an understanding.
Adj. intelligible; clear, clear as day, clear as noonday; lucid;
perspicuous, transpicuous[obs3]; luminous, transparent.
easily understood, easy to understand, for the million, intelligible
to the meanest capacity, popularized.
plain, distinct, explicit; positive; definite &c. (precise) 494.
graphic; expressive &c. (meaning) 516; illustrative &c. (explanatory)
unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable &c. (manifest) 525; unconfused;
legible, recognizable; obvious &c. 525.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English.
Phr. he that runs may read &c. (manifest) 525.

#519. Unintelligibility.-- N. unintelligibility; incomprehensibility,
imperspicuity[obs3]; inconceivableness, vagueness &c. adj.; obscurity;
ambiguity &c. 520; doubtful meaning; uncertainty &c. 475; perplexity &c.
(confusion) 59; spinosity[obs3]; obscurum per obscurius[Lat]; mystification
&c. (concealment) 528; latency &c. 526; transcendentalism.
paradox, oxymoron; riddle, enigma, puzzle &c. (secret) 533; diagnus
vindice nodus[Lat]; sealed book; steganography[obs3], freemasonry.
pons asinorum[Lat], asses' bridge; high Dutch, Greek, Hebrew; jargon
&c. (unmeaning) 517.
V. be unintelligible &c. adj.; require explanation &c. 522; have a
doubtful meaning, pass comprehension.
render unintelligible &c. adj.; conceal &c 528; darken &c. 421;
confuse &c. (derange) 61; perplex &c. (bewilder)
not understand &c. 518; lose, lose the clue; miss; not know what to
make of, be able to make nothing of, give it up; not be able to account
for, not be able to make either head or tail of; be at sea &c. (uncertain)
475; wonder &c. 870; see through a glass darkly &c. (ignorance) 491.
not understand one another; play at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret)
Adj. unintelligible, unaccountable, undecipherable, undiscoverable,
unknowable, unfathomable; incognizable[obs3], inexplicable, inscrutable;
inapprehensible[obs3], incomprehensible; insolvable[obs3], insoluble;
illegible, as Greek to one, unexplained, paradoxical; enigmatic,
enigmatical, puzzling (secret) 533; indecipherable.
obscure, dark, muddy, clear as mud, seen through a mist, dim,
nebulous, shrouded in mystery; opaque, dense; undiscernible &c.
(invisible) 447[obs3]; misty &c. (opaque) 426; hidden &c 528; latent &c
indefinite, garbled &c (indistinct) 447; perplexed &c. (confused) 59;
undetermined, vague, loose, ambiguous; mysterious; mystic, mystical;
acroamatic[obs3], acroamatical[obs3]; metempirical; transcendental; occult,
recondite, abstruse, crabbed.
inconceivable, inconceptible[obs3]; searchless[obs3]; above
comprehension, beyond comprehension, past comprehension; beyond one's
depth; unconceived.
inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.
unpredictable, unforeseeable.
Phr. it's Greek to me.
<-- p. 156 -->

#520. [Having a double sense] Equivocalness.-- N. equivocalness &c
adj.; double meaning &c. 516; ambiguity, double entente, double
entendre[Fr], pun, paragram[obs3], calembour[obs3], quibble, equivoque[Fr],
anagram; conundrum &c (riddle) 533; play on words, word play &c. (wit) 842;
homonym, homonymy[Gram]; amphiboly[obs3], amphibology[obs3];
ambilogy[obs3], ambiloquy|.
Sphinx, Delphic oracle.
equivocation &c. (duplicity) 544; white lie, mental reservation &c.
(concealment) 528; paltering.
V. be -equivocal &c. adj.; have two meanings &c. 516; equivocate &c.
(alter) 544.
Adj. equivocal, ambiguous, amphibolous[obs3], homonymous[obs3];
double-tongued &c. (lying) 544; enigmatical, indeterminate.
Phr. on the one hand, on the other hand.

#521. Metaphor.-- N. figure of speech; facon de parler [French], way
of speaking, colloquialism.
phrase &c. 566; figure, trope, metaphor, enallage[obs3],
catachresis[obs3]; metonymy[Gram], synecdoche[Semant]; autonomasia|!,
irony, figurativeness &c. adj.; image, imagery; metalepsis[obs3], type,
anagoge[obs3], simile, personification, prosopopoeia[obs3], allegory,
apologue[obs3], parable, fable; allusion, adumbration; application.
exaggeration, hyperbole &c. 549.
association, association of ideas (analogy) 514a
V. employ -metaphor &c. n.; personify, allegorize, adumbrate, shadow
forth, apply, allude to.
Adj. metaphorical, figurative, catachrestical[obs3], typical,
tralatitious[obs3], parabolic, allegorical, allusive, anagogical[obs3];
ironical; colloquial; tropical.
Adv. so to speak, so to say, so to express oneself; as it were.
Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Lat][Horace].

#522. Interpretation. -- N. interpretation, definition; explanation,
explication; solution, answer; rationale; plain interpretation, simple
interpretation, strict interpretation; meaning &c. 516.
translation; rendering, rendition; redition[obs3]; literal
translation, free translation; key; secret; clew &c. (indication) 550;
clavis[obs3], crib, pony, trot [U.S.].
exegesis; expounding, exposition; hermeneutics; comment, commentary;
inference &c. (deduction) 480; illustration, exemplification; gloss,
annotation, scholium[obs3], note; elucidation, dilucidation|;
eclaircissement[Fr], mot d'enigme[Fr].
[methods of interpreting - list] symptomatology[Med], semiology,
semeiology[obs3], semiotics; metoposcopy[obs3], physiognomy; paleography
&c. (philology) 560; oneirology
acception[obs3], acceptation, acceptance; light, reading, lection,
construction, version.
equivalent, equivalent meaning &c. 516; synonym; paraphrase,
metaphrase[obs3]; convertible terms, apposition; dictionary &c. 562;
V. interpret, explain, define, construe, translate, render; do into,
turn into; transfuse the sense of.
find out &c. 480a the meaning &c. 516 of; read; spell out, make out;
decipher, unravel, disentangle; find the key of, enucleate, resolve, solve;
read between the lines.
account for; find the cause, tell the cause &c. 153 of;
throw light upon, shed light upon, shed new light upon, shed fresh light
upon; clear up, clarify, elucidate.
illustrate, exemplify; unfold, expound, comment upon, annotate;
popularize &c. (render intelligible) 518.
take in a particular sense, understand in a particular sense, receive
in a particular sense, accept in a particular sense; understand by, put a
construction on, be given to understand.
Adj. explanatory, expository; explicative, explicatory;
exegetical[obs3]; construable.
polyglot; literal; paraphrastic, metaphrastic[obs3];
consignificative[obs3], synonymous; equivalent &c. 27.
Adv. in explanation &c. n.; that is to say, id est, videlicet, to wit,
namely, in other words.
literally, strictly speaking; in plain, in plainer terms, in plainer
words, in plainer English; more simply.

<-- p. 157 -->

#523. Misinterpretation. -- N. misinterpretation, misapprehension,
misunderstanding, misacceptation|, misconstruction, misapplication;
catachresis[obs3]; eisegesis[obs3]; cross-reading, cross-purposes; mistake
&c. 495.
misrepresentation, perversion, exaggeration &c. 549; false coloring,
false construction; abuse of terms; parody, travesty; falsification &c.
(lying) 544.
V. misinterpret, misapprehend, misunderstand, misconceive, misspell,
mistranslate, misconstrue, misapply; mistake &c. 495.
misrepresent, pervert; explain wrongly, misstate; garble &c. (falsify)
544; distort, detort|; travesty, play upon words; stretch the sense, strain
the sense, stretch the meaning, strain the meaning, wrest the sense, wrest
the meaning; explain away; put a bad construction on, put a false
construction on; give a false coloring.
be at cross purposes, play at cross purposes.
Adj. misinterpreted &c. v.; untranslated, untranslatable.

#524. Interpreter.-- N. interpreter; expositor, expounder, exponent,
explainer; demonstrator.
scholiast, commentator, annotator; metaphrast[obs3], paraphrast[obs3];
glossarist[obs3], prolocutor.
spokesman, speaker, mouthpiece.
dragoman, courier, valet de place, cicerone, showman;
oneirocritic[obs3]; (Edipus; oracle &c. 513)


#525. Manifestation.-- N. {ant. 526} manifestation; plainness &c.
adj.; plain speaking; expression; showing &c. v.; exposition,
demonstration; exhibition, production; display, show; showing off;
premonstration|. exhibit[Thing shown].
indication &c. (calling attention to) 457. publicity &c. 531;
disclosure &c. 529; openness &c. (honesty) 543, (artlessness) 703;
evidence &c. 467.
V. make manifest, render manifest &c. adj.; bring forth, bring
forward, bring to the front, bring into view; give notice; express;
represent, set forth, exhibit; show, show up; expose; produce; hold up to
view, expose to view; set before one, place before one, lay before one,
one's eyes; tell to one's face; trot out, put through one's paces, bring to
light, display, demonstrate, unroll; lay open; draw out, bring out; bring
out in strong relief; call into notice, bring into notice; hold up the
mirror; wear one's heart upon his sleeve; show one's face, show one's
colors; manifest oneself; speak out; make no mystery, make no secret of;
unfurl the flag; proclaim &c. (publish) 531.
indicate &c. (direct attention to) 457; disclose &c. 529; elicit &c.
be manifest &c. adj.; appear &c. (be visible) 446; transpire &c. (be
disclosed) 529; speak for itself, stand to reason; stare one in the face,
rear its head; give token, give sign, give indication of; tell its own tale
&c. (intelligible) 518.
Adj. manifest, apparent; salient, striking, demonstrative, prominent,
in the foreground, notable, pronounced.
flagrant; notorious &c. (public) 531; arrant; stark staring; unshaded,
defined, definite.
distinct, conspicuous &c. (visible) 446; obvious, evident,
unmistakable, indubitable, not to be mistaken, palpable, self-evident,
autoptical[obs3]; intelligible &c. 518.
plain, clear, clear as day, clear as daylight, clear as noonday; plain
as a pike staff, plain as the sun at noon-day, plain as the nose on one's
face, plain as the way to parish church.
explicit, overt, patent, express; ostensible; open, open as day;
naked, bare, literal, downright, undisguised, exoteric.
unreserved, frank, plain-spoken &c. (artless) 703; candid (veracious)
543; barefaced.
manifested &c. v.; disclosed &c. 529; capable of being shown,
producible; inconcealable[obs3], unconcealable; no secret.
Adv. manifestly, openly &c. adj.; before one's eyes, under one's nose,
to one's face, face to face, above board, cartes sur table, on the stage,
in open court, in the open streets; in market overt; in the face of day,
face of heaven; in broad daylight, in open daylight; without reserve; at
first blush, prima facie[Lat], on the face of; in set terms.
Phr. cela saute aux yeux[French]; he that runs may read; you can see
it with half an eye; it needs no ghost to tell us [Hamlet]; the meaning
lies on the surface; cela va sans dire[Fr]; res ipsa loquitur[Lat];
"clothing the palpable and familiar" [Coleridge]; fari quae sentiat[Lat];
volto sciolto i pensieri stretti [It]; "you don't need a weatherman to know
which way the wind blows" [Bob Dylan].

<-- p. 158 -->

#526. Latency. Implication. -- N. {ant. 525} latency,
inexpression[obs3]; hidden meaning, occult meaning; occultness, mystery,
cabala[obs3], anagoge[obs3]; silence &c (taciturnity) 585; concealment &c.
528; more than meets the eye, more than meets the ear; Delphic oracle; le
dessous des cartes[Fr], undercurrent.
implication, logical implication; logical consequence; entailment.
allusion, insinuation; innuendo &c. 527; adumbration; "something
rotten in the state of Denmark" [Hamlet].
snake in the grass &c. (pitfall) 667; secret &c. 533.
darkness, invisibility, imperceptibility.
V. be latent &c. adj.; lurk, smolder, underlie, make no sign; escape
observation, escape detection, escape recognition; lie hid &c. 528.
laugh in one's sleeve; keep back &c. (conceal) 528.
involve, imply, understand, allude to, infer, leave an inference;
entail; whisper &c. (conceal) 528.
[understand the implication] read between the lines.
Adj. latent; lurking &c.v.; secret &c. 528; occult; implied &c. v.;
dormant; abeyant.
unapparent, unknown, unseen &c. 441; in the background; invisible &c.
447; indiscoverable[obs3], dark; impenetrable &c. (unintelligible) 519;
unspied[obs3], unsuspected.
unsaid, unwritten, unpublished, unbreathed[obs3], untalked of[obs3],
untold &c. 527, unsung, unexposed, unproclaimed[obs3], undisclosed &c. 529,
unexpressed; not expressed, tacit.
undeveloped, solved, unexplained, untraced[obs3], undiscovered &c.
480a, untracked, unexplored, uninvented[obs3].
indirect, crooked, inferential; by inference, by implication;
implicit; constructive; allusive, covert, muffled; steganographic[obs3];
understood, underhand, underground; delitescent[obs3], concealed &c. 528.
Adv. by a side wind; sub silentio[Lat]; in the background; behind the
scenes, behind one's back; on the tip of one's tongue; secretly &c. 528;
between the lines.
Phr. "thereby hangs a tale" [As You Like It]; tacitum vivit sub
pectore vulnus [Lat][Vergil]; where there's smoke, there's fire.

#527. Information.-- N. information, enlightenment, acquaintance,
knowledge &c. 490; publicity &c. 531; data &c. 467.
communication, intimation; notice, notification; enunciation,
annunciation; announcement; communiqu; representation, round robin,
case, estimate, specification, report, advice, monition; news &c. 532;
return &c. (record) 551; account &c. (description) 594; statement &c.
(affirmation) 535.
mention; acquainting &c. v; instruction &c. (teaching) 537;
outpouring; intercommunication, communicativeness.
informant, authority, teller, intelligencer[obs3], reporter, exponent,
informer, eavesdropper, delator, detective; sleuth; mouchard[obs3],
spy, newsmonger; messenger &c. 534; amicus curiae[Lat].
valet de place, cicerone, pilot, guide; guidebook, handbook; vade
mecum[Latin]; manual; map, plan, chart, gazetteer; itinerary &c. (journey)
hint, suggestion, innuendo, inkling, whisper, passing word, word in
the ear, subaudition[obs3], cue, byplay; gesture &c. (indication) 550;
gentle hint, broad hint; verbum sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise];
insinuation &c. (latency) 526.
information theory.
[units of information] bit, byte, word, doubleword[Comp], quad word,
paragraph, segment.
[information storage media] magnetic media, paper medium, optical
media; random access memory, RAM; read-only memory, ROM; write once read
mostly memory, WORM.
V. tell; inform, inform of; acquaint, acquaint with; impart, impart
to; make acquaintance with, apprise, advise, enlighten, awaken; transmit.
let fall, mention, express, intimate, represent, communicate, make
known; publish &c. 531; notify, signify, specify, convey the knowledge of.
let one know, have one to know; give one to understand; give notice;
set before, lay before, put before; point out, put into one's head; put one
in possession of; instruct &c. (teach) 537; direct the attention to &c.
announce, annunciate; report, report progress; bringword[obs3], send
word, leave word, write word; telegraph, telephone; wire; retail, render an
account; give an account &c. (describe) 594; state &c (affirm) 535.
[disclose inadvertently or reluctantly] let slip, blurt out, spill the
beans, unburden oneself of, let off one's chest; disclose &c. 529.
show cause; explain &c. (interpret) 522.
hint; given an inkling of; give a hint, drop a hint, throw out a hint;
insinuate; allude to, make allusion to; glance at; tip the wink &c.
(indicate) 550; suggest, prompt, give the cue, breathe; whisper, whisper in
the ear.
give a bit of one's mind; tell one plainly, tell once for all; speak
undeceive[obs3], unbeguile[obs3]; set right, correct, open the eyes
of, disabuse, disillusion one of.
be informed of &c.; know &c 490; learn &c. 539; get scent of, get wind
of, gather from; awaken to, open one's eyes to; become alive, become awake
to; hear, overhear, understand.
come to one's ears, come to one's knowledge; reach one's ears.
Adj. informed &c. v.; communique; reported &c. v.; published &c. 531.
expressive &c. 516; explicit &c. (open) 525, (clear) 518; plain spoken
&c, (artless) 703.
nuncupative, nuncupatory|; declaratory, expository; enunciative[obs3];
communicative, communicatory[obs3].
Adv. from information received.
Phr. a little bird told me; I heard it through the grapevine.

#527a. Correction. [Correct an error of information; distinguish from
correcting a flaw or misbehavior] -- N. correction.
disillusionment &c. 616.
V. correct, set right, set straight, put straight; undeceive[obs3];
show one one's error; point out an error, point out a fallacy; pick
out an error, pick out the fallacy; open one's eyes.
pick apart an argument, confutation &c. 479; reasoning &c. 476.
Adj. corrective.
Phr. I stand corrected.
<-- p. 159 -->

#528. Concealment.-- N. concealment; hiding &c. v.; occultation,
seal of secrecy; screen &c. 530; disguise &c. 530; masquerade; masked
battery; hiding place &c. 530; cryptography, steganography[obs3];
stealth, stealthiness, sneakiness; obreption|; slyness &c. (cunning)
latitancy[obs3], latitation[obs3]; seclusion &c. 893; privacy,
secrecy, secretness[obs3]; incognita.
reticence; reserve; mental reserve, reservation; arriere pensee[Fr],
suppression, evasion, white lie, misprision; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585;
suppression of truth &c. 544; underhand dealing; closeness, secretiveness
&c. adj.; mystery.
latency &c. 526; snake in the grass; secret &c. 533; stowaway.
V. conceal, hide, secrete, put out of sight; lock up, seal up, bottle
encrypt, encode, cipher.
cover, screen, cloak, veil, shroud; cover up one's tracks; screen from
sight, screen from observation; drawing the veil; draw the curtain, close
the curtain; curtain, shade, eclipse, throw a view over; becloud, bemask;
mask, disguise; ensconce, muffle, smother; befog; whisper.
keep from; keep back, keep to oneself; keep snug, keep close, keep
secret, keep dark; bury; sink, suppress; keep from, keep from out of view,
keep from out of sight; keep in the shade, throw into the shade, throw into
background; stifle, hush up, smother, withhold, reserve; fence with a
question; ignore &c. 460.
keep a secret, keep one's own counsel; hold one's tongue &c. (silence)
585; make no sign, not let it go further; not breathe a word, not breathe a
syllable about; not let the right hand know what the left is doing; hide
one's light under a bushel, bury one's talent in a napkin.
keep in the dark, leave in the dark, keep in the ignorance; blind,
blind the eyes; blindfold, hoodwink, mystify; puzzle &c. (render uncertain)
475; bamboozle &c. (deceive) 545.
be concealed &c. v.; suffer an eclipse; retire from sight, couch; hide
oneself; lie hid, lie in perdu[Fr], lie in close; lie in ambush (ambush)
530; seclude oneself &c. 893; lurk, sneak, skulk, slink, prowl; steal into,
steal out of, steal by, steal along; play at bopeep[obs3], play at hide and
seek; hide in holes and corners; still hunt.
Adj. concealed &c. v.; hidden; secret, recondite, mystic, cabalistic,
occult, dark; cryptic, cryptical[obs3]; private, privy, in petto,
auricular, clandestine, close, inviolate; tortuous.
behind a screen &c. 530; undercover, under an eclipse; in ambush, in
hiding, in disguise; in a cloud, in a fog, in a mist, in a haze, in a dark
corner; in the shade, in the dark; clouded, wrapped in clouds, wrapt in
clouds[obs3]; invisible &c.447; buried, underground, perdu[Fr]; secluded
&c. 893.
undisclosed &c. 529, untold &c. 527; covert &c. (latent) 526;
untraceable; mysterious &c. (unintelligible) 519.
irrevealable[obs3], inviolable; confidential; esoteric; not to be
spoken of; unmentionable.
obreptitious[obs3], furtive, stealthy, feline; skulking &c. v.;
surreptitious, underhand, hole and corner; sly &c. (cunning). 702;
secretive, evasive; reserved, reticent, uncommunicative, buttoned up;
close, close as wax; taciturn &c. 585.
Adv. secretly &c. adj.; in secret, in private, in one's sleeve, in
holes and corners; in the dark &c. adj.
januis clausis[Lat], with closed doors, a huis clos[Fr]; hugger
mugger, a la derobee[Fr]; under the cloak of, under the rose, under the
table; sub rosa[Lat], en tapinois[Fr], in the background, aside, on the
sly, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], in a whisper, without beat of
drum, a la sourdine[obs3].
behind the veil; beyond mortal ken, beyond the grave, beyond the veil;
hid from mortal vision; into the eternal secret, into the realms
supersensible[obs3], into the supreme mystery.
in confidence, in strict confidence, in strictest confidence;
confidentially &c. adj.; between ourselves, between you and me; between you
and me and the bedpost; entre nous[Fr], inter nos, under the seal of
secrecy; a couvert[Fr].
underhand, by stealth, like a thief in the night; stealthily &c. adj.;
behind the scenes, behind the curtain, behind one's back, behind a screen
&c. 530; incognito; in camera.
Phr. it must go no further, it will go no further; don't tell a
soul;"tell it not in Gath,"nobody the wiser; alitur vitium vivitque
tegendo[Lat][obs3]; "let it be tenable in your silence still"[Hamlet].
[confidential disclosure to news reporters] background information,
deep background information, deep background; background session,
backgrounder; not for attribution

<-- p. 160 -->

#529. Disclosure -- N. disclosure; retection|; unveiling &c.v.;
deterration[obs3], revealment, revelation; exposition, exposure; expose;
whole truth; telltale &c (news) 532.
acknowledgment, avowal; confession, confessional; shrift.
bursting of a bubble; denouement.
[person who discloses a secret] tattletale, snitch, fink, stool
pigeon, canary.
V. disclose, discover, dismask|; draw the veil, draw aside the veil,
lift the veil, raise the veil, lift up the veil, remove the veil, tear
aside the veil, tear the curtain; unmask, unveil, unfold, uncover, unseal,
unkennel; take off the seal, break the seal; lay open, lay bare; expose;
open, open up; bare, bring to light.
divulge, reveal, break; squeal, tattle, sing, rat, snitch [all coll.];
let into the secret; reveal the secrets of the prison house; tell &c
(inform) 527; breathe, utter, blab, peach; let out, let fall, let drop,
let slip, spill the beans, let the cat out of the bag; betray; tell tales,
come out of school; come out with; give vent, give utterance to; open the
lips, blurt out, vent, whisper about; speak out &c (make manifest) 525;
make public &c 531; unriddle &c (find out) 480a; split.
acknowledge, allow, concede, grant, admit, own, own up to, confess,
avow, throw off all disguise, turn inside out, make a clean breast; show
one's hand, show one's cards; unburden one's mind, disburden one's mind,
disburden one's conscience, disburden one's heart; open one's mind, lay
bare one's mind, tell a piece of one's mind[Fr]; unbosom oneself, own to
the soft impeachment; say the truth, speak the truth; turn King's (or
Queen's) evidence; acknowledge the corn* [U.S.].
raise the mask, drop the mask, lift the mask, remove the mask, throw
off the mask; expose; lay open; undeceive[obs3], unbeguile[obs3]; disabuse,
set right, correct, open the eyes of; dsillusionner.
be disclosed &c.; transpire, come to light; come in sight &c. (be
visible) 446; become known, escape the lips; come out, ooze out, creep out,
leak out, peep out, crop-out; show its face, show its colors; discover &c.
itself; break through the clouds, flash on the mind.
Adj. disclosed &c.v.; open, public &c. 525.
Int.out with it!
Phr. the murder is out; a light breaks in upon one; the scales fall
from one's eyes; the eyes are opened.

#530. Ambush [Means of concealment]. -- N. camouflage; mimicry; hiding
place; secret place, secret drawer; recess, hold, holes and corners;
closet, crypt, adytum[obs3], abditory[obs3], oubliette.
ambush, ambuscade; stalking horse; lurking hole, lurking place; secret
path, back stairs; retreat &c. (refuge) 666.
screen, cover, shade, blinker; veil, curtain, blind, cloak, cloud.
mask, visor, vizor[obs3], disguise, masquerade dress, domino.
pitfall &c. (source of danger) 667; trap &c. (snare) 545.
V. blend in, blend into the background.
lie in ambush &c (hide oneself) 528; lie in wait for, lurk; set a trap
for &c (deceive) 545; ambuscade, ambush.
[transitive] camouflage.
Adj. camouflaged, hidden, concealed.
Adv. aux aguets[obs3].

<-- p. 161 -->

#531. Publication.-- N. publication; public announcement &c 527;
promulgation, propagation, proclamation, pronunziamento [Italian];
circulation, indiction[obs3], edition; hue and cry.
publicity, notoriety, currency, flagrancy, cry, bruit, hype; vox
populi; report &c (news) 532.
the Press, public press, newspaper, journal, gazette, daily;
telegraphy; publisher &c v.; imprint.
circular, circular letter; manifesto, advertisement, ad., placard,
bill, affiche[obs3], broadside, poster; notice &c. 527.
V. publish; make public, make known &c (information) 527; speak of,
talk of; broach, utter; put forward; circulate, propagate, promulgate;
spread, spread abroad; rumor, diffuse, disseminate, evulugate; put forth,
give forth, send forth; emit, edit, get out; issue; bring before the
public, lay before the public, drag before the public; give out, give to
the world; put about, bandy about, hawk about, buzz about, whisper about,
bruit about, blaze about; drag into the open day; voice.
proclaim, herald, blazon; blaze abroad, noise abroad; sound a trumpet;
trumpet forth, thunder forth; give tongue; announce with beat of drum,
announce with flourish of trumpets; proclaim from the housetops, proclaim
at Charing Cross.
advertise, placard; post, post up afficher[obs3], publish in the
Gazette, send round the crier.
raise a cry, raise a hue and cry, raise a report; set news afloat.
be published &c; be public, become public &c adj.; come out; go about,
fly about, buzz about, blow about; get about, get abroad, get afloat, get
wind; find vent; see the light; go forth, take air, acquire currency, pass
current; go the rounds, go the round of the newspapers, go through the
length and breadth of the land; virum volitare per ora[Lat]; pass from
mouth to mouth; spread; run like wildfire, spread like wildfire.
Adj. published &c.v.; current &c. (news) 532; in circulation, public;
notorious; flagrant, arrant; open &c 525; trumpet-tongued; encyclical,
encyclic[obs3], promulgatory[obs3]; exoteric.
Adv. publicly &c. adj.; in open court, with open doors.
Int. Oyez! O yes! notice!
Phr. notice is hereby given; this is to give, these are to give
notice; nomina stultorum parietibus haerent[Lat]; semel emissum volat
irrevocabile verbum[Lat]..

#532. News.-- N. news; information &c 527; piece of news[Fr], budget
of news, budget of information; intelligence, tidings.
word, advice, aviso[Sp], message; dispatch, despatch; telegram, cable,
marconigram[obs3], wire, communication, errand, embassy.
report, rumor, hearsay, on dit[Fr], flying rumor, news stirring, cry,
buzz, bruit, fame; talk, oui dire[Fr], scandal, eavesdropping; town tattle,
table talk; tittle tattle; canard, topic of the day, idea afloat.
bulletin, fresh news, stirring news; glad tidings; flash, news just
in; on-the-spot coverage; live coverage.
old story, old news, stale news, stale story; chestnut*.
narrator &c (describe) 594; newsmonger, scandalmonger; talebearer,
telltale, gossip, tattler.
[study of news reporting] journalism.
[methods of conveying news] media, news media, the press, the
information industry; newspaper, magazine, tract, journal, gazette,
publication &c. 531; radio, television, ticker (electronic information
[organizations producing news reports] United Press International,
UPI; Associated Press, AP; The Dow Jones News Service, DJ; The New York
Times News Service, NYT[abbr]; Reuters [England]; TASS [Soviet Union]; The
Nikkei [Japan].
[person reporting news as a profession] newscaster, newsman,
newswoman, reporter, journalist, correspondent, foreign correspondent,
special correspondent, war correspondent, news team, news department;
anchorman, anchorwoman[obs3]; sportscaster; weatherman.
[officials providing news for an organization] press secretary, public
relations department, public relations man.
V. transpire &c (be disclosed) 529; rumor &c (publish) 531.
Adj. many-tongued; rumored; publicly rumored, currently rumored,
currently reported; rife, current, floating, afloat, going about, in
circulation, in every one's mouth, all over the town.
in progress; live; on the spot; in person.
Adv. as the story goes, as the story runs; as they say, it is said; by
telegraph, by wireless.
Phr. "airy tongues that syllable men's names" [Milton]; what's up?;
what's the latest?; what's new?; what's the latest poop?.

#533. Secret.-- N. secret; dead secret, profound secret;
arcanum[obs3], mystery; latency &c 526; Asian mystery[obs3]; sealed book,
secrets of the prison house; le desous des cartes [Fr].
enigma, riddle, puzzle, nut to crack, conundrum, charade, rebus,
logogriph[obs3]; monogram, anagram; Sphinx; crux criticorum[Lat].
maze, labyrinth, Hyrcynian wood; intricacy, meander.
problem &c (question) 461; paradox &c (difficulty) 704;
unintelligibility &c. 519; terra incognita &c. (ignorance) 491.
Adj. secret &c. (concealed) 528; involved &c, 248; labyrinthine,
labyrinthian[obs3], mazy.
confidential; top secret.

<-- p. 162 -->

#534. Messenger.-- N. messenger, envoy, emissary, legate; nuncio,
internuncio[obs3]; ambassador &c (diplomatist) 758.
marshal, flag bearer, herald, crier, trumpeter, bellman[obs3],
pursuivant[obs3], parlementaire[Fr], apparitor[obs3].
courier, runner; dak[obs3], estafette[obs3]; Mercury, Iris,
commissionaire[Fr]; errand boy, chore boy; newsboy.
mail, overnight mail, express mail, next-day delivery; post, post
office; letter bag; delivery service; United Parcel Service, UPS; Federal
Express, Fedex.
telegraph, telephone; cable, wire (electronic information
transmission); carrier pigeon.
[person reporting news: see news &c. 532] reporter, gentleman of the
press, representative of the press; penny-a-liner; special correspondent,
own correspondent; spy, scout; informer &c. 527.

#535. Affirmation.-- N. affirmance, affirmation; statement,
allegation, assertion, predication, declaration, word, averment;
asseveration, adjuration, swearing, oath, affidavit; deposition &c
(record) 551; avouchment; assurance; protest, protestation; profession;
acknowledgment &c. (assent) 488; legal pledge, pronouncement; solemn
averment, solemn avowal, solemn declaration.
remark, observation; position &c. (proposition) 514, saying, dictum,
sentence, ipse dixit[Lat].
emphasis; weight; dogmatism &c. (certainty) 474; dogmatics &c 887.
V. assert; make an assertion &c n.; have one's say; say, affirm,
predicate, declare, state; protest, profess.
put forth, put forward; advance, allege, propose, propound, enunciate,
broach, set forth, hold out, maintain, contend, pronounce, pretend.
depose, depone, aver, avow, avouch, asseverate, swear; make oath, take
one's oath; make an affidavit, swear an affidavit, put in an affidavit;
take one's Bible oath, kiss the book, vow, vitam impendere vero[Lat]; swear
till one is black in the face, swear till one is blue in the face, swear
till all's blue; be sworn, call Heaven to witness; vouch, warrant, certify,
assure, swear by bell book and candle.
swear by &c (believe) 484; insist upon, take one's stand upon;
emphasize, lay stress on; assert roundly, assert positively; lay down, lay
down the law; raise one's voice, dogmatize, have the last word; rap out;
repeat; reassert, reaffirm.
announce &c (information) 527; acknowledge &c (assent) 488; attest &c
(evidence) 467; adjure &c (put to one's oath) 768.
Adj. asserting &c.v.; declaratory, predicatory[obs3],
pronunciative[obs3], affirmative, soi-disant[Fr]; positive; certain &c 474;
express, explicit &c (patent) 525; absolute, emphatic, flat, broad, round,
pointed, marked, distinct, decided, confident, trenchant, dogmatic,
definitive, formal, solemn, categorical, peremptory; unretracted[obs3];
Adv. affirmatively &c adj.; in the affirmative.
with emphasis, ex-cathedra, without fear of contradiction.
as God is my witness, I must say, indeed, i' faith, let me tell you,
why, give me leave to say, marry, you may be sure, I'd have you to know;
upon my word, upon my honor; by my troth, egad, I assure you; by jingo, by
Jove, by George, &c.; troth, seriously, sadly; in sadness, in sober
sadness, in truth, in earnest; of a truth, truly, perdy[obs3], in all
conscience, upon oath; be assured &c (belief) 484; yes &c (assent) 488;
I'll warrant, I'll warrant you, I'll engage, I'll answer for it, I'll be
bound, I'll venture to say, I'll take my oath; in fact, forsooth, joking
apart; so help me God; not to mince the matter.
Phr. quoth he; dixi[Lat].

#536. Negation. -- N. negation, abnegation; denial; disavowal,
disclaimer; abjuration; contradiction, contravention;
recusation[obs3][Law], protest; recusancy &c (dissent) 489; flat
contradiction, emphatic contradiction, emphatic denial, dementi[Lat].
qualification &c 469; repudiation &c 610; retraction &c 607;
confutation &c 479; refusal &c 764; prohibition &c 761.
V. deny; contradict, contravene; controvert, give denial to, gainsay,
negative, shake the head.
disown, disaffirm, disclaim, disavow; recant &c 607; revoke &c
(abrogate) 756.
dispute; impugn, traverse, rebut, join issue upon; bring in question,
call in question &c. (doubt) 485; give (one) the lie in his throat.
deny flatly, deny peremptorily, deny emphatically, deny absolutely,
deny wholly, deny entirely; give the lie to, belie.
repudiate &c 610; set aside, ignore &c 460; rebut &c. (confute) 479;
qualify &c 469; refuse &c 764.
Adj. denying &c.v.; denied &c.v.; contradictory; negative, negatory;
recusant &c (dissenting) 489; at issue upon.
Adv. no, nay, not, nowise; not a bit, not a whit, not a jot; not at
all, nohow, not in the least, not so; negative, negatory; no way [coll.];
no such thing; nothing of the kind, nothing of the sort; quite the
contrary, tout au contraire[Fr], far from it; tant s'en faut[Fr]; on no
account, in no respect; by no, by no manner of means; negatively.
[negative with respect to time] never, never in a million years; at no
Phr. there never was a greater mistake; I know better; non haec in
faedera[Lat]; a thousand times no.

<-- p. 163 -->

#537. Teaching.-- N. teaching &c.v.; instruction; edification;
education; tuition; tutorage, tutelage; direction, guidance;
qualification, preparation; training, schooling &c. v.; discipline;
drill, practice; book exercise.
persuasion, proselytism, propagandism[obs3], propaganda;
indoctrination, inculcation, inoculation; advise &c. 695.
explanation &c (interpretation) 522; lesson, lecture, sermon;
apologue[obs3], parable; discourse, prolection[obs3], preachment; chalk
talk; Chautauqua [U.S.].
exercise, task; curriculum; course, course of study; grammar, three
R's, initiation, A.B.C. &c (beginning) 66.
elementary education, primary education, secondary education,
technical education, college education, collegiate education, military
education, university education, liberal education, classical education,
religious education, denominational education, moral education, secular
education; propaedeutics[obs3], moral tuition.
gymnastics, calisthenics; physical drill, physical education;
[methods of teaching] phonics; rote, rote memorization, brute memory;
cooperative learning; Montessori method, ungraded classes.
[measuring degree of learning of pupils] test, examination, exam;
final exam, mid-term exam grade[result of measurement of learning], score,
marks; A,B,C,D,E,F; gentleman's C; pass, fail, incomplete.
homework; take-home lesson; exercise for the student; theme, project.
V. teach, instruct, educate, edify, school, tutor; cram, prime, coach;
enlighten &c (inform) 527.
inculcate, indoctrinate, inoculate, infuse, instill, infix,
ingraft[obs3], infiltrate; imbue, impregnate, implant; graft, sow the seeds
of, disseminate.
given an idea of; put up to, put in the way of; set right.
sharpen the wits, enlarge the mind; give new ideas, open the eyes,
bring forward, "teach the young idea how to shoot" [Thomson]; improve &c.
expound &c (interpret) 522; lecture; read a lesson, give a lesson,
give a lecture, give a sermon, give a discourse; incept[obs3]; hold forth,
preach; sermonize, moralize; point a moral.
train, discipline; bring up, bring up to; form, ground, prepare,
qualify; drill, exercise, practice, habituate, familiarize with, nurture,
drynurse[obs3], breed, rear, take in hand; break, break in; tame;
preinstruct[obs3]; initiate; inure &c (habituate) 613.
put to nurse, send to school.
direct, guide; direct attention to &c. (attention) 457; impress upon
the mind, impress upon the memory; beat into, beat into the head; convince
&c (belief) 484.
[instructional materials] book, workbook, exercise book.
[unnecessary teaching] preach to the wise, teach one's grandmother to
suck eggs, teach granny to suck eggs; preach to the converted.
Adj. teaching &c.v; taught &c.v.; educational; scholastic, academic,
doctrinal; disciplinal[obs3]; instructive, instructional, didactic;
propaedeutic[obs3], propaedeutical[obs3].
Phr. the schoolmaster abroad; a bovi majori disscit arare minor[Lat];
adeo in teneris consuecere multum est [Lat][Vergil]; docendo discimus[Lat];
quaenocent docent[Lat]; qui docet discit[Latin]; "sermons in stones and
good in everything" [As You Like It].

#538. Misteaching.-- N. misteaching[obs3], misinformaton,
misintelligence[obs3], misguidance, misdirection, mispersuasion[obs3],
misinstruction[obs3], misleading &c.v.; perversion, false teaching;
sophistry &c 477; college of Laputa; the blind leading the blind.
[misteaching by government agents] propaganda, disinformation,
agitprop; indoctrination.
V. misinform, misteach[obs3], misdescribe[obs3], misinstruct[obs3],
miscorrect[obs3]; misdirect, misguide; pervert; put on a false scent, throw
off the scent, throw off the trail; deceive &c 545; mislead &c (error) 495;
misrepresent; lie &c 544; ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat][Vergil].
propagandize, disinform.
render unintelligible &c 519; bewilder &c (uncertainty) 475; mystify
&c. (conceal) 528; unteach.
[person or government agent who misteaches] propagandist.
Adj. misteaching &c.v[obs3]; unedifying.
Phr. piscem natare doces [Lat]; the blind leading the blind.

<-- p. 164 -->

#539. Learning -- N. learning; acquisition of knowledge &c 490,
acquisition of skill &c 698; acquirement, attainment; edification,
scholarship, erudition; acquired knowledge, lore, wide information; self-
instruction; study, reading, perusal; inquiry &c 451.
apprenticeship, prenticeship[obs3]; pupilage, pupilarity[obs3];
tutelage, novitiate, matriculation.
docility &c (willingness) 602; aptitude &c 698.
V. learn; acquire knowledge, gain knowledge, receive knowledge, take
in knowledge, drink in knowledge, imbibe knowledge, pick up knowledge,
gather knowledge, get knowledge, obtain knowledge, collect knowledge, glean
knowledge, glean information, glean learning.
acquaint oneself with, master; make oneself master of, make oneself
acquainted with; grind, cram; get up, coach up; learn by heart, learn by
read, spell, peruse; con over, pore over, thumb over; wade through;
dip into; run the eye over, run the eye through; turn over the leaves.
study; be studious &c adj.
[study intensely] burn the midnight oil, consume the midnight oil,
mind one's book; cram.
go to school, go to college, go to the university; matriculate; serve
an (or one's) apprenticeship, serve one's time; learn one's trade; be
informed &c 527; be taught &c 537.
[stop going to school voluntarily (intransitive)] drop out, leave
school, quit school; graduate; transfer; take a leave.
[cause to stop going to school (transitive)] dismiss, expel, kick out
of school.
[stop going to school involuntarily] flunk out; be dismissed &c.
Adj. studious; scholastic, scholarly; teachable; docile &c (willing)
602; apt &c 698, industrious &c 682.
Adv. at one's books; in statu pupillari &c (learner) 541[Lat].
Phr. "a lumber-house of books in every head" [Pope]; ancora
imparo[Lat][obs3]! "hold high converse with the mighty dead" [Thomson];
"lash'd into Latin by the tingling rod" [Gay].

#540. Teacher. -- N. teacher, trainer, instructor, institutor, master,
tutor, director, Corypheus, dry nurse, coach, grinder, crammer, don;
governor, bear leader; governess, duenna[Sp]; disciplinarian.
professor, lecturer, reader, prelector[obs3], prolocutor, preacher;
chalk talker, khoja[obs3]; pastor &c (clergy) 996; schoolmaster,
dominie[Fr], usher, pedagogue, abecedarian; schoolmistress, dame, monitor,
pupil teacher.
expositor &c 524; preceptor, guide; guru; mentor &c (adviser) 695;
pioneer, apostle, missionary, propagandist, munshi[obs3], example &c (model
for imitation) 22.
professorship &c (school) 542.
tutelage &c (teaching) 537.
Adj. professorial.
Phr. qui doet discet[Lat].

#541. Learner.-- N. learner, scholar, student, pupil; apprentice,
prentice[obs3], journeyman; articled clerk; beginner, tyro, amateur, rank
amateur; abecedarian, alphabetarian[obs3]; alumnus, eleve[Fr].
recruit, raw recruit, novice, neophyte, inceptor[obs3], catechumen,
probationer; seminarian, chela, fellow-commoner; debutant.
[apprentice medical doctors] intern; resident.
schoolboy; fresh, freshman, frosh; junior soph[obs3], junior; senior
soph[obs3], senior; sophister[obs3], sophomore; questionist[obs3].
[college and university students] undergraduate; graduate student; law
student; medical student; pre-med; post-doctoral student, post-doc;
matriculated student; part-time student, night student, auditor.
[group of learners] class, grade, seminar, form, remove; pupilage &c
(learning) 539.
disciple, follower, apostle, proselyte; fellow-student,
[place of learning] school &c. 542.
V. learn; practise.
Adj. in statu pupillari[Lat], in leading strings.
Phr. practise makes perfect.

#542. School.-- N. school, academy, university, alma mater, college,
seminary, Lyceum; institute, institution; palaestra, Gymnasium, class,
day school, boarding school, preparatory school, primary school,
infant school, dame's school, grammar school, middle class school, Board
school, denominational school, National school, British and Foreign school,
collegiate school, art school, continuation school, convent school, County
Council school, government school, grant-in-aid school, high school, higher
grade school, military school, missionary school, naval school, naval
academy, state-aided school, technical school, voluntary school, school;
school of art; kindergarten, nursery, creche, reformatory.
pulpit, lectern, soap box desk, reading desk, ambo[obs3], lecture
room, theater, auditorium, amphitheater, forum, state, rostrum, platform,
hustings, tribune.
school book, horn book, text book; grammar, primer, abecedary[obs3],
rudiments, manual, vade mecum; encyclopedia, cyclopedia; Lindley Murray,
Cocker; dictionary, lexicon.
professorship, lectureship, readership, fellowship, tutorship; chair.
School Board Council of Education; Board of Education; Board of
Studies, Prefect of Studies; Textbook Committee; propaganda.
Adj. scholastic, academic, collegiate; educational.
Adv. ex cathedra[Lat].

<-- p. 165 -->

#543. Veracity.-- N. veracity; truthfulness, frankness, &c. adj.;
truth, sincerity, candor, unreserve|!, honesty, fidelity; plain dealing,
bona fides[Lat]; love of truth; probity &c. 939; ingenuousness &c
(artlessness) 703.
the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; honest truth,
sober truth &c (fact) 494; unvarnished tale; light of truth.
V. speak the truth, tell the truth; speak by the card; paint in its
true colors, show oneself in one's true colors; make a clean breast &c
(disclose) 529; speak one's mind &c. (be blunt) 703; not lie &c 544, not
deceive &c. 545.
Adj. truthful, true; veracious, veridical; scrupulous &c (honorable)
939; sincere, candid, frank, open, straightforward, unreserved; open
hearted, true hearted, simple-hearted; honest, trustworthy; undissembling
&c (dissemble &c 544)[obs3]; guileless, pure; truth-loving;
unperjured[obs3]; true blue, as good as one's word; unaffected, unfeigned,
bona fide; outspoken, ingenuous &c (artless) 703; undisguised &c (real)
Adv. truly &c (really) 494; in plain words &c 703; in truth, with
truth, of a truth, in good truth; as the dial to the sun, as the needle to
the pole; honor bright; troth; in good sooth[obs3], in good earnest;
unfeignedly, with no nonsense, in sooth[obs3], sooth to say[obs3], bona
fide, in foro conscientiae[Lat]; without equivocation; cartes sur table,
from the bottom of one's heart; by my troth &c (affirmation) 535.
Phr. di il vero a affronterai il diavolo[It][obs3]; Dichtung und
Wahrheit[Ger]; esto quod esse videris[Lat]; magna est veritas et
praevalet[Lat]; "that golden key that opes the palace of eternity"
[Milton]; veritas odium parit[Lat]; veritatis simplex oratio est[Lat];
verite sans peur[Fr].

<-- should clarify distinction between untruth generally (objectively
false) and untruth in communication (lie, deception) -->
#544. Falsehood. -- N. falsehood, falseness; falsity, falsification;
deception &c. 545; untruth &c 546; guile; lying &c. 454; untruth &c 546;
guile; lying &c. v. misrepresentation; mendacity, perjury, false swearing;
forgery, invention, fabrication; subreption[obs3]; covin[obs3].
perversion of truth, suppression of truth; suppressio veri[Lat];
perversion, distortion, false coloring; exaggeration &c 549; prevarication,
equivocation, shuffling, fencing, evasion, fraud; suggestio falsi &c (lie)
546[Lat]; mystification &c (concealment) 528; simulation &c (imitation) 19;
dissimulation, dissembling; deceit; blague[obs3].
sham; pretense, pretending, malingering.
lip homage, lip service; mouth honor; hollowness; mere show, mere
outside; duplicity, double dealing, insincerity, hypocrisy, cant, humbug;
jesuitism, jesuitry; pharisaism; Machiavelism, "organized hypocrisy";
crocodile tears, mealy-mouthedness[obs3], quackery; charlatanism[obs3],
charlatanry; gammon; bun-kum[obs3], bumcombe, flam; bam*[obs3], flimflam,
cajolery, flattery; Judas kiss; perfidy &c (bad faith) 940; il volto
sciolto i pensieri stretti[It].
unfairness &c (dishonesty) 940; artfulness &c (cunning) 702;
misstatement &c (error) 495.
V. be false &c adj., be a liar &c 548; speak falsely &c adv.; tell a
lie &c. 546; lie, fib; lie like a trooper; swear false, forswear, perjure
oneself, bear false witness.
misstate, misquote, miscite[obs3], misreport, misrepresent; belie,
falsify, pervert, distort; put a false construction upon &c. (misinterpret)
prevaricate, equivocate, quibble; palter, palter to the understanding;
repondre en Normand[Fr]; trim, shuffle, fence, mince the truth, beat about
the bush, blow hot and cold, play fast and loose.
garble, gloss over, disguise, give a color to; give a gloss, put a
gloss, put false coloring upon; color, varnish, cook, dress up, embroider;
varnish right and puzzle wrong; exaggerate &c 549; blague[obs3].
invent, fabricate; trump up, get up; force, fake, hatch, concoct;
romance &c (imagine) 515; cry "wolf!"
dissemble, dissimulate; feign, assume, put on, pretend, make believe;
play possum; play false, play a double game; coquet; act a part, play a
part; affect &c. 855; simulate, pass off for; counterfeit, sham, make a
show of; malinger; say the grapes are sour.
cant, play the hypocrite, sham Abraham, faire pattes de velours, put
on the mask, clean the outside of the platter, lie like a conjuror; hand
out false colors, hold out false colors, sail under false colors; "commend
the poisoned chalice to the lips" [Macbeth]; ambiguas in vulgum spargere
voces [Lat]; deceive &c 545.
Adj. false, deceitful, mendacious, unveracious, fraudulent, dishonest,
faithless, truthless, trothless; unfair, uncandid; hollow-hearted; evasive;
uningenuous, disingenuous; hollow, sincere, Parthis mendacior; forsworn.
artificial, contrived; canting; hypocritical, jesuitical, pharisaical;
tartuffish; Machiavelian; double, double tongued, double faced, double
handed, double minded, double hearted, double dealing; Janus faced; smooth-
faced, smooth spoken, smooth tongued; plausible; mealy-mouthed; affected &c
collusive, collusory; artful &c. (cunning) 702; perfidious &c 940;
spurious &c (deceptive) 545; untrue &c 546; falsified &c v.; covinous.
Adv. falsely &c adj.; a la tartufe, with a double tongue; silly &c
(cunning) 702.
Phr. blandae mendacia lingua[Lat]; falsus in uno falsus in
omnibus[Lat]; "I give him joy that's awkward at a lie" [Young]; la mentira
tiene las piernas cortas [Sp]; "O what a goodly outside falsehood hath"
[Merchant of Venice].

<-- p. 166 -->

#545. Deception. -- N. deception; falseness &c 544; untruth &c 546;
imposition, imposture; fraud, deceit, guile; fraudulence,
fraudulency[obs3]; covin[obs3]; knavery &c. (cunning) 702;
misrepresentation &c (falsehood) 544; bluff; straw-bail, straw bid [U.S.];
delusion, gullery[obs3]; juggling, jugglery[obs3]; slight of hand,
legerdemain; prestigiation|, prestidigitation; magic &c 992; conjuring,
conjuration; hocus-pocus, escamoterie[obs3], jockeyship[obs3]; trickery,
coggery|, chicanery; supercherie[obs3], cozenage[obs3], circumvention,
ingannation|, collusion; treachery &c 940; practical joke.
trick, cheat, wile, blind, feint, plant, bubble, fetch, catch,
chicane, juggle, reach, hocus, bite; card sharping, stacked deck, loaded
dice, quick shuffle, double dealing, dealing seconds, dealing from the
bottom of the deck; artful dodge, swindle; tricks upon travelers; stratagem
&c (artifice) 702; confidence trick, fake, hoax; theft &c. 791; ballot-box
stuffing barney*[obs3][U.S.], brace* game, bunko game, drop* game, gum*
game, panel game[U.S.]; shell game, thimblerig; skin* game [U.S.].
snare, trap, pitfall, decoy, gin; springe[obs3], springle|; noose,
hoot; bait, decoy-duck, tub to the whale, baited trap, guet-a-pens; cobweb,
net, meshes, toils, mouse trap, birdlime; dionaea[obs3], Venus's
flytrap[obs3]; ambush &c 530; trapdoor, sliding panel, false bottom;
spring-net, spring net, spring gun, mask, masked battery; mine;
flytrap[obs3]; green goods [U.S.]; panel house.
Cornish hug; wolf in sheep's clothing &c (deceiver) 548; disguise,
disguisement[obs3]; false colors, masquerade, mummery, borrowed plumes;
pattes de velours[Fr].
mockery &c (imitation) 19; copy &c 21; counterfeit, sham, make-
believe, forgery, fraud; lie &c 546; "a delusion a mockery and a snare"
[Denman], hollow mockery.
whited sepulcher, painted sepulcher; tinsel; paste, junk jewelry,
costume jewelry, false jewelry, synthetic jewels; scagliola[obs3], ormolu,
German silver, albata[obs3], paktong[obs3], white metal, Britannia metal,
paint; veneer; jerry building; man of straw.
illusion &c (error) 495; ignis fatuus &c 423[Lat]; mirage &c 443.
V. deceive, take in; defraud, cheat, jockey, do, cozen, diddle, nab,
chouse, play one false, bilk, cully[obs3], jilt, bite, pluck, swindle,
victimize; abuse; mystify; blind one's eyes; blindfold, hoodwink; throw
dust into the eyes; dupe, gull, hoax, fool, befool[obs3], bamboozle,
flimflam, hornswoggle; trick.
impose upon, practice upon, play upon, put upon, palm off on, palm
upon, foist upon; snatch a verdict; bluff off, bluff; bunko, four flush*,
gum* [U.S.], spoof*, stuff (a ballot box) [U.S.].
circumvent, overreach; outreach, out wit, out maneuver; steal a march
upon, give the go-by, to leave in the lurch
decoy, waylay, lure, beguile, delude, inveigle; entrap, intrap[obs3],
ensnare; nick, springe[obs3]; set a trap, lay a trap, lay a snare for; bait
the hook, forelay[obs3], spread the toils, lime; trapan[obs3], trepan;
kidnap; let in, hook in; nousle[obs3], nousel[obs3]; blind a trail; enmesh,
immesh[obs3]; shanghai; catch, catch in a trap; sniggle, entangle,
illaqueate[obs3], hocus, escamoter[obs3], practice on one's credulity; hum,
humbug; gammon, stuff up*, sell; play a trick upon one, play a practical
joke upon one, put something over on one, put one over on; balk, trip up,
throw a tub to a whale; fool to the top of one's bent, send on a fool's
errand; make game, make a fool of, make an April fool of[obs3], make an ass
of; trifle with, cajole, flatter; come over &c. (influence) 615; gild the
pill, make things pleasant, divert, put a good face upon; dissemble &c
cog, cog the dice, load the dice, stack the deck; live by one's wits,
play at hide and seek; obtain money under false pretenses &c (steal) 791;
conjure, juggle, practice chicanery; deacon [U.S.].
play off, palm off, foist off, fob- off.
lie &c 544; misinform &c 538; mislead &c (error) 495; betray &c 940;
be deceived &c 547.
Adj. deceived &c v.; deceiving &c; cunning &c 702; prestigious|,
prestigiatory|; deceptive, deceptious[obs3]; deceitful, covinous[obs3];
delusive, delusory; illusive, illusory; elusive, insidious, ad captandum
untrue &c 546; mock, sham, make-believe, counterfeit, snide*, pseudo,
spurious, supposititious, so-called, pretended, feigned, trumped up, bogus,
scamped, fraudulent, tricky, factitious;bastard; surreptitious,
illegitimate, contraband, adulterated, sophisticated; unsound, rotten at
the core; colorable; disguised; meretricious, tinsel, pinchbeck, plated;
catchpenny; Brummagem.
artificial, synthetic, ersatz[&German]; simulated &c 544.
Adv. under false colors, under the garb of, under cover of; over the
Phr. "keep the word of promise to the ear and break it to the hope"
[Macbeth]; fronti nulla fides[Lat]; "ah that deceit should steal such
gentle shapes" [Richard III]; "a quicksand of deceit" [Henry VI]; decipimur
specie recti [Lat][Horace]; falsi crimen[Lat]; fraus est celare
fraudem[Lat]; lupus in fabula[Lat]; "so smooth, he daubed his vice with
show of virtue" [Richard III].

<-- p. 167 -->

#546. Untruth.-- N. untruth, falsehood, lie, story, thing that is not,
fib, bounce, crammer, taradiddle[obs3], whopper; jhuth[obs3].
forgery, fabrication, invention; misstatement, misrepresentation;
perversion, falsification, gloss, suggestio falsi[Lat]; exaggeration &c
invention, fabrication, fiction; fable, nursery tale; romance &c
(imagination) 515; absurd story, untrue story, false story, trumped up
story, trumped up statement; thing devised by the enemy; canard; shave,
sell, hum, traveler's tale, Canterbury tale, cock and bull story, fairy
tale, fake; claptrap.
press agent's yarn; puff, puffery (exaggeration) 549.
myth, moonshine, bosh, all my eye and Betty Martin, mare's nest,
irony; half truth, white lie, pious fraud; mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528.
pretense, pretext; false plea &c 617; subterfuge, evasion, shift,
shuffle, make-believe; sham &c (deception) 545.
profession, empty words; Judas kiss &c (hypocrisy) 544; disguise &c
(mask) 530.
V. have a false meaning.
Adj. untrue, false, phony, trumped up; void of foundation, without-
foundation; fictive, far from the truth, false as dicer's oaths; unfounded,
ben trovato[It], invented, fabulous, fabricated, forged; fictitious,
factitious, supposititious, surreptitious; elusory[obs3], illusory;
ironical; soi-disant &c (misnamed) 565[Fr].
Phr. se non e vero e ben trovato[It]; "where none is meant that meets
the ear"[Milton].

<-- p. 168 -->

#547. Dupe.-- N. dupe, gull, gudgeon, gobemouche[obs3], cull*,
cully[obs3], victim, pigeon, April fool[obs3]; jay*, sucker*; laughingstock
&c 857; Cyclops, simple Simon, flat; greenhorn; fool &c 501; puppet, cat's
V. be deceived &c 545, be the dupe of; fall into a trap; swallow the
bait, nibble at the bait; bite, catch a Tartar.
Adj. credulous &c 486; mistaken &c. (error) 495.

#548. Deceiver.-- N. deceiver &c (deceive &c 545); dissembler,
hypocrite; sophist, Pharisee, Jesuit, Mawworm[obs3], Pecksniff, Joseph
Surface, Tartufe[obs3], Janus; serpent, snake in the grass, cockatrice,
Judas, wolf in sheep's clothing; jilt; shuffler|!, stool pigeon.
liar &c (lie &c 544); story-teller, perjurer, false witness, menteur a
triple etage[Fr], Scapin[obs3]; bunko steerer* [U.S.], carpetbagger*
[U.S.], capper* [U.S.], faker, fraud, four flusher*, horse coper[obs3],
ringer*, spieler[obs3], straw bidder [U.S.].
imposter, pretender, soi-disant[Fr], humbug; adventurer; Cagliostro,
Fernam Mendez Pinto; ass in lion's skin &c (bungler) 701; actor &c (stage
player) 599.
quack, charlatan, mountebank, saltimbanco[obs3], saltimbanque[obs3],
empiric, quacksalver, medicaster[obs3], Rosicrucian, gypsy; man of straw.
conjuror, juggler, trickster, prestidigitator, jockey; crimp, decoy,
decoy duck; rogue, knave, cheat; swindler &c (thief) 792; jobber.
Phr. "saint abroad and a devil at home" [Bunyan].

#549. Exaggeration.-- N. exaggeration; expansion &c 194; hyperbole,
stretch, strain, coloring; high coloring, caricature, caricatura[obs3];
extravagance &c. (nonsense) 497; Baron Munchausen; men in buckram, yarn,
fringe, embroidery, traveler's tale; fish story, gooseberry*
storm in a teacup; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482;
puff, puffery &c (boasting) 884; rant &c (turgescence) 577[obs3].
figure of speech, facon de parler[Fr]; stretch of fancy, stretch of
the imagination; flight of fancy &c (imagination) 515.
false coloring &c (falsehood) 544; aggravation &c. 835.
V. exaggerate, magnify, pile up, aggravate; amplify &c (expand) 194;
overestimate &c 482; hyperbolize; overcharge, overstate, overdraw, overlay,
overshoot the mark, overpraise; make over much, over the most of; strain,
strain over a point; stretch, stretch a point; go great lengths; spin a
long yarn; draw with a longbow, shoot with a longbow; deal in the
out-Herod Herod, run riot, talk at random.
heighten, overcolor[obs3]; color highly, color too highly;
broder[obs3]; flourish; color &c. (misrepresent) 544; puff &c (boast) 884.
Adj. exaggerated &c. v.; overwrought; bombastic &c. (grandiloquent)
577; hyperbolical[obs3], on stilts; fabulous, extravagant, preposterous,
egregious, outre[Fr], highflying[obs3].
Adv. hyperbolically &c adj.
Phr. excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo [Lat][Cicero].

<-- p. 169 -->

1. Natural Means
<-- recognition of something by its features must be broken out into a
separate entry. Include the terms recognition, identification,
dereplication, classification; note memory 505, identification (comparison,
464, discovery 480a)
distinguish recognition and recall in technical sense -->

#550. Indication -- N. indication; symbolism, symbolization;
semiology, semiotics, semeiology[obs3], semeiotics[obs3]; Zeitgeist.
[means of recognition: property] characteristic, diagnostic;
lineament, feature, trait; fingerprint, voiceprint, footprint, noseprint
[for animals]; cloven hoof; footfall; recognition (memory) 505.
[means of recognition: tool] diagnostic, divining rod; detector.
sign, symbol; index, indice|, indicator; point, pointer; exponent,
note, token, symptom; dollar sign, dollar mark.
type, figure, emblem, cipher, device; representation &c. 554;
epigraph, motto, posy.
gesture, gesticulation; pantomime; wink, glance, leer; nod, shrug,
beck; touch, nudge; dactylology[obs3], dactylonomy[obs3]; freemasonry,
telegraphy, chirology[Med], byplay, dumb show; cue; hint &c. 527; clue,
clew, key, scent.
signal, signal post; rocket, blue light; watch fire, watch tower;
telegraph, semaphore, flagstaff; cresset[obs3], fiery cross; calumet;
heliograph; guidon; headlight.
[sign (evidence) on physobj of contact with another physobj] mark,
scratch, line, stroke, dash, score, stripe, streak, tick, dot, point,
notch, nick.
print; imprint, impress, impression.
[symbols accompanying written text to signify modified interpretation]
keyboard symbols, printing symbols; red letter[for emphasis], italics,
sublineation[obs3], underlining, bold font; jotting; note, annotation,
reference; blaze, cedilla, guillemets[obs3], hachure[Topography];
quotation marks, double quotes,"", parentheses, brackets, braces, curly
brackets, arrows, slashes; left parenthesis[list], "("; right parenthesis,
")"; opening bracket, "["; closing bracket, "]"; left curly brace, "{";
right curly brace, "}"; left arrow, "<"; right arrow, ">"; forward slash,
"/"; backward slash, "\"; exclamation point, "!"; commercial at, "@"; pound
sign, "#"; percent sign, "%"; carat, "^"; ampersand, "&"; asterisk, "*";
hyphen, "-"; dash, "-", "_"; em dash, "--"; plus sign, "+", equals sign,
"="; question mark, "?"; period, "."; semicolon, ";", colon, ":"; comma,
","; apostrophe, "'"; single quote, "'"; tilde, "~".
[For identification: general] badge, criterion; countercheck[obs3],
countermark[obs3], countersign, counterfoil; duplicate, tally; label,
ticket, billet, letter, counter, check, chip, chop; dib[obs3]; totem;
tessera[obs3], card, bill; witness, voucher; stamp; cacher[Fr]; trade mark,
Hall mark.
[For identification of people, on a document] signature, mark,
autograph, autography; attestation; hand, hand writing, sign manual;
cipher; seal, sigil[Lat], signet, hand and seal [Law]; paraph[obs3],
brand; superscription; indorsement[obs3], endorsement.
[For identification of people, to gain access to restricted (locations
or information)] password, watchword, catchword; security card, pass,
passkey; credentials &c. (evidence) 467; open sesame; timbrology[obs3];
mot de passe[Fr], mot du guet[Fr]; pass-parole; shibboleth.
title, heading, docket.
address card, visiting card; carte de visite[Fr].
insignia; banner, banneret[obs3], bannerol[obs3]; bandrol[obs3]; flag,
colors, streamer, standard, eagle, labarum[obs3], oriflamb[obs3],
oriflamme; figurehead; ensign; pennon, pennant, pendant; burgee[obs3], blue
Peter, jack, ancient, gonfalon, union jack; banderole, "old glory"
[U.S.], quarantine flag; vexillum[obs3]; yellow-flag, yellow jack;
tricolor, stars and stripes; bunting.
heraldry, crest; coat of arms, arms; armorial bearings,
hatchment[obs3]; escutcheon, scutcheon; shield, supporters; livery,
uniform; cockade, epaulet, chevron; garland, love knot, favor.
[Of locality] beacon, cairn, post, staff, flagstaff, hand, pointer,
vane, cock, weathercock; guidepost, handpost[obs3], fingerpost[obs3],
directing post, signpost; pillars of Hercules, pharos; bale-fire, beacon-
fire; l'etoile du Nord[Fr]; landmark, seamark; lighthouse, balize[obs3];
polestar, loadstar[obs3], lodestar; cynosure, guide; address, direction,
name; sign, signboard.
[Of the future] warning &c. 668; omen &c. 512; prefigurement &c. 511.
trace[Of the past], record &c. 551. warning &c. 668[Of danger]; alarm &c.
669. scepter &c. 747[Of authority]. trophy &c. 733[Of triumph]. gauge
&c. 466[Of quantity]. milestone[Of distance], milepost. brand[Of
disgrace], fool's cap. check[For detection], telltale; test &c.
(experiment) 463; mileage ticket; milliary[obs3].
notification &c. (information) 527; advertisement &c. (publication)
word of command, call; bugle call, trumpet call; bell, alarum, cry;
battle cry, rallying cry; angelus[obs3]; reveille; sacring bell[obs3],
sanctus bell[Lat].
exposition &c. (explanation) 522, proof &c. (evidence) 463; pattern
&c. (prototype) 22.
V. indicate; be the sign &c. n. of; denote, betoken; argue, testify
&c. (evidence) 467; bear the impress &c. n. of; connote, connotate[obs3].
represent, stand for; typify &c. (prefigure) 511; symbolize.
put an indication, put a mark &c. n.; note, mark, stamp, earmark;
blaze; label, ticket, docket; dot, spot, score, dash, trace, chalk; print;
imprint, impress; engrave, stereotype.
make a sign &c. n. signalize; underscore; give a signal, hang out a
signal; beckon; nod; wink, glance, leer, nudge, shrug, tip the wink;
gesticulate; raise the finger, hold up the finger, raise the hand, hold up
the hand; saw the air, "suit the action to the word" [Hamlet].
wave a banner, unfurl a banner, hoist a banner, hang out a banner &c.
n.; wave the hand, wave a kerchief; give the cue &c. (inform) 527; show
one's colors; give an alarm, sound an alarm; beat the drum, sound the
trumpets, raise a cry.
sign, seal, attest &c. (evidence) 467; underline &c. (give importance
to) 642; call attention to &c. (attention) 457; give notice &c. (inform)
Adj. indicating &c. v., indicative, indicatory; denotative,
connotative; diacritical, representative, typical, symbolic, pantomimic,
pathognomonic[obs3], symptomatic, characteristic, demonstrative,
diagnostic, exponential, emblematic, armorial; individual &c. (special) 79.
known by, recognizable by; indicated &c. v.; pointed, marked.
[Capable of being denoted] denotable[obs3]; indelible.
Adv. in token of; symbolically &c. adj.; in dumb show.
Phr. ecce signum[Lat]; ex ungue leonem[Lat], ex pede Herculem[Lat];
vide ut supra; vultus ariete fortior[Lat][obs3].

<-- p. 170 -->

#551. Record. -- N. trace, vestige, relic, remains; scar, cicatrix;
footstep, footmark[obs3], footprint; pug; track mark, wake, trail, scent,
monument, hatchment[obs3], slab, tablet, trophy, achievement; obelisk,
pillar, column, monolith; memorial; memento &c. (memory) 505; testimonial,
medal; commemoration &c. (celebration) 883.
record, note, minute; register, registry; roll &c. (list) 86;
cartulary, diptych, Domesday book; catalogue raisonne[Fr]; entry,
memorandum, indorsement[obs3], inscription, copy, duplicate, docket; notch
&c. (mark) 550; muniment[obs3], deed &c. (security) 771; document;
deposition, proces verbal[Fr]; affidavit; certificate &c. (evidence) 467.
notebook, memorandum book, memo book, pocketbook, commonplace book;
portfolio; pigeonholes, excerpta[obs3], adversaria[Lat], jottings,
gazette, gazetteer; newspaper, daily, magazine; almanac,
almanack[obs3]; calendar, ephemeris, diary, log, journal, daybook, ledger;
cashbook[obs3], petty cashbook[obs3]; professional journal, scientific
literature, the literature, primary literature, secondary literature,
article, review article.
archive, scroll, state paper, return, blue book; statistics &c. 86;
compte rendu[Fr]; Acts of, Transactions of, Proceedings of; Hansard's
Debates; chronicle,annals, legend; history, biography &c. 594;
Congressional Records.
registration; registry; enrollment, inrollment[obs3]; tabulation;
entry, booking; signature &c (identification) 550; recorder &c. 553;
[analog recording media] recording, tape recording, videotape.
[digital recording media] compact disk; floppy disk, diskette; hard
disk, Winchester disk; read-only memory, ROM; write once read mostly
memory, WORM.
V. record; put on record, place on record; chronicle, calendar, hand
down to posterity; keep up the memory &c. (remember) 505; commemorate &c.
(celebrate) 883; report &c. (inform) 527; write, commit to writing, reduce
to writing; put in writing, set down in writing, writing in black and
white; put down, jot down, take down, write down, note down, set down;
note, minute, put on paper; take note, make a note, take minute, take
memorandum; make a return.
mark &c. (indicate) 550; sign &c. (attest) 467.
enter, book; post, post up, insert, make an entry of; mark off, tick
off; register, enroll, inscroll[obs3]; file &c. (store) 636.
burn into memory; carve in stone.
Adv. on record.
Phr. exegi monumentum aere perennium [Lat][obs3][Horace]; "read their
history in a nation's eyes" [Gray]; "records that defy the tooth of time"

#552. [Suppression of sign.] Obliteration. -- N. obliteration;
erasure, rasure[obs3]; cancel, cancellation; circumduction[obs3]; deletion,
blot; tabula rasa[Lat]; effacement, extinction.
V. efface, obliterate, erase, raze|!, rase[obs3], expunge, cancel;
blot out, take out, rub out, scratch out, strike out, wipe out, wash out,
sponge out; wipe off, rub off; wipe away; deface, render illegible; draw
the pen through, apply the sponge.
be effaced &c.; leave no trace &c. 550; "leave not a rack behind."
Adj. obliterated &c. v.; out of print; printless[obs3]; leaving no
trace; intestate; unrecorded, unregistered, unwritten.
Int. dele; out with it!
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat][Cato].

#553. Recorder. -- N. recorder, notary, clerk; registrar,
registrary[obs3], register; prothonotary[Law]; amanuensis, secretary,
scribe, babu[obs3], remembrancer[obs3], bookkeeper, custos rotulorum[Lat],
Master of the Rolls.
annalist; historian, historiographer; chronicler, journalist;
biographer &c. (narrator) 594; antiquary &c. (antiquity) 122;
memorialist[obs3]; interviewer.

#554. Representation. -- N. representation, representment[obs3];
imitation &c. 19; illustration, delineation, depictment[obs3]; imagery,
portraiture, iconography; design, designing; art, fine arts; painting &c.
556; sculpture &c. 557; engraving &c. 558; photography, cinematography;
radiography, autoradiography[Bioch], fluorography[Chem], sciagraphy[obs3].
personation, personification; impersonation; drama &c. 599.
picture, photo, photograph, daguerreotype, snapshot; X-ray photo;
movie film, movie; tracing, scan, TV image, video image, image file,
graphics, computer graphics, televideo, closed-circuit TV.
copy &c. 21; drawing, sketch, drought, draft; plot, chart, figure,
image, likeness, icon, portrait, striking likeness, speaking
likeness; very image; effigy, facsimile.
figure, figure head; puppet, doll, figurine, aglet[obs3], manikin,
lay-figure, model, mammet[obs3], marionette, fantoccini[obs3], waxwork,
bust; statue, statuette.
ideograph, hieroglyphic, anaglyph [obs3],kanji[Jap]; diagram,
map, plan, chart, ground plan, projection, elevation (plan) 626.
ichnography[obs3], cartography; atlas; outline, scheme; view &c.
(painting) 556; radiograph, scotograph[obs3], sciagraph[obs3]; spectrogram,
V. represent, delineate; depict, depicture[obs3]; portray; take a
likeness, catch a likeness &c. n.; hit off, photograph, daguerreotype;
snapshot; figure, shadow forth, shadow out; adumbrate; body forth; describe
&c. 594; trace, copy; mold.
dress up; illustrate, symbolize.
paint &c. 556; carve &c. 557; engrave &c. 558.
personate, personify; impersonate; assume a character; pose as; act;
play &c. (drama) 599; mimic &c. (imitate) 19; hold the mirror up to nature.
Adj. represent, representing &c. v., representative; *illustrative;
represented &c. v.; imitative, figurative; iconic.
like &c. 17; graphic &c. (descriptive) 594; cinquecento
quattrocento[Fr][obs3], trecento[obs3].

<-- p. 171 -->

#555. Misrepresentation. -- N. misrepresentation, distortion,
caricatura|, exaggeration; daubing &c. v.; bad likeness, daub, sign
painting; scratch, caricature; anamorphosis[obs3]; burlesque,
falsification, misstatement; parody, lampoon, take-off, travesty.
V. misrepresent, distort, overdraw, exaggerate, caricature, daub;
burlesque, parody, travesty.
Adj. misrepresented &c. v.

<-- photography should be separated from painting -->

#556. Painting. -- N. painting; depicting; drawing &c. v.; design;
perspective, sciagraphy[obs3], skiagraphy[obs3]; chiaroscuro &c. (light)
420 composition; treatment.
historical painting, portrait painting, miniature painting; landscape
painting, marine painting; still life, flower painting, scene painting;
school, style; the grand style, high art, genre, portraiture;
ornamental art &c. 847.
monochrome, polychrome; grisaille[Fr].
pallet, palette; easel; brush, pencil, stump; black lead, charcoal,
crayons, chalk, pastel; paint &c. (coloring matter) 428; watercolor, body
color, oil color; oils, oil paint; varnish &c. 356a, priming; gouache,
tempera, distemper, fresco, water glass; enamel; encaustic painting;
mosaic; tapestry.
photography, heliography, color photography; sun painting; graphics,
computer graphics.
picture, painting, piece[Fr], tableau, canvas; oil painting &c.;
fresco, cartoon; easel picture, cabinet picture, draught, draft; pencil &c.
drawing, water color drawing, etching, charcoal, pen-and-ink; sketch,
outline, study.
photograph, color photograph, black-and-white photograph, holograph,
heliograph; daguerreotype, talbotype[obs3], calotype[obs3],
heliotype[obs3]; negative, positive; print, glossy print, matte print;
enlargement, reduction, life-size print; instant photo, Polaroid photo.
technicolor, Kodachrome, Ektachrome; Polaroid.
portrait &c. (representation) 554; whole length, full length, half
length; kitcat, head; miniature; shade, silhouette; profile.
landscape, seapiece[obs3]; view, scene, prospect; panorama, diorama;
still life.
picture gallery, exhibit; studio, atelier; pinacotheca[obs3].
V. paint, design, limn draw, sketch, pencil, scratch, shade, stipple,
hatch, dash off, chalk out, square up; color, dead color, wash, varnish;
draw in pencil &c. n.; paint in oils &c. n.; stencil; depict &c.
(represent) 554.
Adj. painted &c. v.; pictorial, graphic, picturesque.
pencil, oil &c. n.
Adv. in pencil &c. n.
Phr. fecit[Lat], delineavit[Lat]; mutum est pictura poema[Lat].

#557. Sculpture. -- N. sculpture, insculpture| [obs3]; carving &c. v.;
high relief, low relief, bas relief[Fr]; relief; relieve;
bassorilievo[obs3], altorilievo[obs3], mezzorilievo[obs3]; intaglio,
anaglyph[obs3]; medal, medallion; cameo.
marble, bronze, terra cotta[Sp], papier-mache; ceramic ware, pottery,
porcelain, china, earthenware; cloisonne, enamel, faience, Laocoon,
statue.&c. (image) 554; cast &c (copy) 21; glyptotheca[obs3].
V. sculpture, carve, cut, chisel, model, mold; *cast.
Adj. sculptured &c, v. in relief, anaglyptic[obs3], ceroplastic[obs3],
ceramic; parian[obs3]; marble &c. n.; xanthian[obs3].

<-- p. 172 -->

#558. Engraving. -- N. engraving, chalcography[obs3]; line engraving,
mezzotint engraving, stipple engraving, chalk engraving; dry point, bur;
etching, aquatinta[obs3]; chiseling; plate engraving, copperplate
engraving, steel engraving, wood engraving; xylography, lignography[obs3],
glyptography[obs3], cerography[obs3], lithography, chromolithography[obs3],
photolithography, zincography[obs3], glyphography, xylograph,
lignograph[obs3], glyptograph[obs3], cerograph[obs3], lithograph,
chromolithograph, photolithograph, zincograph[obs3], glyphograph[obs3],
impression, print, engraving, plate; steelplate, copperplate; etching;
mezzotint, aquatint, lithotint[obs3]; cut, woodcut; stereotype,
graphotype[obs3], autotype[obs3], heliotype[obs3].
graver, burin[obs3], etching point, style; plate, stone, wood block,
negative; die, punch, stamp.
printing; plate printing, copperplate printing, anastatic
printing[obs3], color printing, lithographic printing; type printing &c.
591; three-color process.
illustration, illumination; half tone; photogravure; vignette, initial
letter, cul de lampe[Fr], tailpiece.
[person who inscribes on stone] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. engrave, grave, stipple, scrape, etch; bite, bite in; lithograph
&c., n.; print.
Adj. insculptured[obs3]; engraved &c. v..
[of inscriptions on stone] lapidary.
Phr. sculpsit[Lat], imprimit[Lat].

#559. Artist. -- N. artist; painter, limner, drawer, sketcher,
designer, engraver; master, old master; draftsman, draughtsman; copyist,
dauber, hack; enamel, enameler, enamelist; caricaturist.
historical painter, landscape painter, marine painter, flower painter,
portrait painter, miniature painter, miniaturist, scene painter, sign
painter, coach painter; engraver; Apelles[obs3]; sculptor, carver, chaser,
modeler, figuriste[obs3], statuary; Phidias, Praxiteles; Royal Academician.
photographer, cinematographer, lensman, cameraman, camera technician,
camera buff; wildlife photographer.
Phr. photo safari; "with gun and camera"

2. Conventional Means
Language generally

#560. Language. -- N. language; phraseology &c. 569; speech &c. 582;
tongue, lingo, vernacular; mother tongue, vulgar tongue, native tongue;
household words; King's English, Queen's English; dialect &c. 563.
confusion of tongues, Babel, pasigraphie[obs3]; pantomime &c. (signs)
550; onomatopoeia; betacism[obs3], mimmation, myatism[obs3],
nunnation[obs3]; pasigraphy[obs3].
lexicology, philology, glossology[obs3], glottology[obs3];
linguistics, chrestomathy[obs3]; paleology[obs3], paleography; comparative
literature, letters, polite literature, belles lettres[Fr], muses,
humanities, literae humaniores[Lat], republic of letters, dead languages,
classics; genius of language; scholarship &c. (scholar) 492.
V. express by words &c. 566.
Adj. lingual, linguistic; dialectic; vernacular, current; bilingual;
diglot[obs3], hexaglot[obs3], polyglot; literary.
Phr. "syllables govern the world" [Selden].

#561. Letter. -- N. letter; character; hieroglyphic &c. (writing) 590;
type &c. (printing) 591; capitals; digraph, trigraph; ideogram, ideograph;
majuscule, minuscule; majuscule, minuscule; alphabet, ABC[obs3],
abecedary[obs3], christcross-row.
consonant, vowel; diphthong, triphthong[Gram]; mute, liquid, labial,
dental, guttural. syllable; monosyllable, dissyllable[obs3], polysyllable;
affix, suffix.
spelling, orthograph[obs3]; phonography[obs3], phonetic spelling;
anagrammatism[obs3], metagrammatism[obs3]. cipher, monogram, anagram;
V. spell.
Adj. literal; alphabetical, abecedarian; syllabic; majuscular[obs3],
minuscular[obs3]; uncial &c. (writing) 590.

#562. Word. -- N. word, term, vocable; name &c. 564; phrase &c. 566;
root, etymon; derivative; part of speech &c. (grammar) 567;
dictionary, vocabulary, lexicon, glossary; index, concordance;
thesaurus; gradus[Lat], delectus[Lat].
etymology, derivation; glossology[obs3], terminology orismology[obs3];
paleology &c. (philology) 560[obs3].
lexicography; glossographer &c. (scholar) 492; lexicologist,
Adj. verbal, literal; titular, nominal. conjugate[Similarly derived],
paronymous[obs3]; derivative.
Adv. verbally &c. adj.; verbatim &c. (exactly) 494.
Phr. "the artillery of words" [Swift].

<-- p. 173 -->

#563. Neologism. -- N. neology, neologism; newfangled expression,
nonce expression; back-formation; caconym[obs3]; barbarism.
archaism, black letter, monkish Latin.
corruption, missaying[obs3], malapropism, antiphrasis[obs3].
pun, paranomasia[obs3], play upon words; word play &c. (wit) 842;
double-entendre &c. (ambiguity) 520[Fr]; palindrome, paragram[obs3],
anagram, clinch; abuse of language, abuse of terms.
dialect, brogue, idiom, accent, patois; provincialism, regionalism,
localism; broken English, lingua franca; Anglicism, Briticism, Gallicism,
Scotticism, Hibernicism; Americanism[obs3]; Gypsy lingo, Romany; pidgin,
pidgin English, pigeon English; Volapuk, Chinook, Esperanto, Hindustani,
kitchen Kaffir.
dog Latin, macaronics[obs3], gibberish; confusion of tongues, Babel;
babu English[obs3], chi-chi.
figure of speech &c. (metaphor) 521; byword.
colloquialism, informal speech, informal language.
substandard language, vernacular.
vulgar language, obscene language, obscenity, vulgarity.
jargon, technical terms, technicality, lingo, slang, cant, argot; St.
Gile's Greek, thieves' Latin, peddler's French, flash tongue, Billingsgate,
Wall Street slang.
pseudonym &c. (misnomer) 565; Mr. So-and-so; wha d'ye call 'em[obs3],
whatchacallim, what's his name; thingummy[obs3], thingumbob; je ne sais
neologist[obs3], coiner of words.
V. coin words, coin a term; backform; Americanize, Anglicize.
Adj. neologic[obs3], neological[obs3]; archaic; obsolete &c. (old)
124; colloquial; Anglice[obs3].

#564. Nomenclature. -- N. nomenclature; naming &c. v.; nuncupation|,
nomination, baptism; orismology[obs3]; onomatopoeia; antonomasia[obs3].
name; appelation[obs3], appelative[obs3]; designation, title; heading,
rubric; caption; denomination; by-name, epithet.
style, proper name; praenomen[Lat], agnomen[obs3], cognomen;
patronymic, surname; cognomination[obs3]; eponym; compellation[obs3],
description, antonym; empty title, empty name; handle to one's name;
term, expression, noun; byword; convertible terms &c. 522; technical
term; cant &c. 563.
V. name, call, term, denominate designate, style, entitle,
clepe[obs3], dub, christen, baptize, characterize, specify, define,
distinguish by the name of; label &c. (mark) 550.
be -called &c v.; take the name of, bean the name of, go by the name of,
be known by the name of, go under the name of, pass under the name of,
rejoice in the name of.
Adj. named &c. v.; hight[obs3], ycleped, known as; what one may well,
call fairly, call properly, call fitly.
nuncupatory[obs3], nuncupative; cognominal[obs3], titular, nominal,
Phr. "beggar'd all description" [Antony and Cleopatra].

#565. Misnomer. -- N. misnomer; lucus a non lucendo[Lat]; Mrs.
Malaprop; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563[obs3]; Hoosier.
nickname, sobriquet, by-name; assumed name, assumed title; alias; nom
de course, nom de theatre, nom de guerre[Fr], nom de plume; pseudonym,
V. misname, miscall, misterm[obs3]; nickname; assume a name.
Adj. misnamed &c. v.; pseudonymous; soi-disant[Fr]; self called, self
styled, self christened; so-called.
nameless, anonymous; without a having no name; innominate, unnamed;
Adv. in no sense.

#566. Phrase. -- N. phrase, expression, set phrase; sentence,
paragraph; figure of speech &c. 521; idiom, idiotism[obs3]; turn of
expression; style.
paraphrase &c. (synonym) 522; periphrase &c. (circumlocution) 573
motto &c. (proverb) 496[obs3].
phraseology &c. 569.
V. express, phrase; word, word it; give words to, give expression to;
voice; arrange in words, clothe in words, put into words, express by words;
couch in terms; find words to express; speak by the card; call, denominate,
designate, dub.
Adj. expressed &c. v.; idiomatic.
Adv. in round terms, in set terms, in good set terms, set terms; in
set phrases.

<-- p. 174 -->

#567. Grammar. -- N. grammar, accidence, syntax, praxis, punctuation;
parts of speech; jussive[obs3]; syllabication; inflection, case,
declension, conjugation; us et norma loquendi[Lat]; Lindley Murray &c.
(schoolbook) 542; correct style, philology &c. (language) 560.
V. parse, punctuate, syllabicate[obs3].

#568. Solecism. -- N. solecism; bad grammar, false grammar, faulty
grammar; slip of the pen, slip of the tongue; lapsus linguae[Lat];
slipslop[obs3]; bull; barbarism, impropriety.
V. use bad grammar, faulty grammar; solecize[obs3], commit a
solecism; murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English, break
Priscian's head.
Adj. ungrammatical; incorrect, inaccurate; faulty; improper,
incongruous; solecistic, solecistical[obs3].

#569. Style. -- N. style, diction, phraseology, wording; manner,
strain; composition; mode of expression, choice of words; mode of speech,
literary power, ready pen, pen of a ready writer; command of language &c.
(eloquence) 582; authorship; la morgue litteraire[Fr]..
V. express by words &c. 566; write.
Phr. le style c'est de l'homme [Fr][Buffon]; "style is the dress of
thoughts" [Chesterfield].

Various Qualities of Style

#570. Perspicuity. -- N. perspicuity, perspicuousness &c.
(intelligibility) 518; plain speaking &c. (manifestation) 525;
definiteness, definition; exactness &c. 494; explicitness, lucidness.
Adj. lucid &c. (intelligible) 518; explicit &c. (manifest) 525; exact
&c. 494.

#571. Obscurity. -- N. obscurity &c. (unintelligibility) 519;
involution; hard words; ambiguity &c. 520; unintelligibleness; vagueness
&c. 475, inexactness &c. 495; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563[obs3];
darkness of meaning.
Adj. obscure &c. n.; crabbed, involved, confused.

#572. Conciseness. -- N. conciseness &c. adj.; brevity, "the soul of
wit", laconism[obs3]; Tacitus; ellipsis; syncope; abridgment &c.
(shortening) 201; compression &c. 195; epitome &c. 596; monostich[obs3];
brunch word, portmanteau word.
V. be concise &c. adj.; condense &c. 195; abridge &c. 201; abstract
&c. 596; come to the point.
Adj. concise, brief, short, terse,close; to the point, exact; neat,
compact; compressed, condensed, pointed; laconic, curt, pithy, trenchant,
summary; pregnant; compendious &c. (compendium) 596; succinct; elliptical,
epigrammatic, quaint, crisp; sententious.
Adv. concisely &c. adj.; briefly, summarily; in brief, in short, in a
word, in a few words; for shortness sake; to come to the point, to make a
long story short, to cut the matter short, to be brief; it comes to this,
the long and the short of it is.
Phr. brevis esse laboro obscurus fio [Lat][Horace].

#573. Diffuseness. -- N. diffuseness &c. adj.; amplification &c. v.;
dilating &c. v.; verbosity, verbiage, cloud of words, copia verborum[Lat];
flow of words &c. (loquacity) 584; looseness.
Polylogy[obs3], tautology, battology[obs3], perissology|; pleonasm,
exuberance, redundancy; thrice-told tale; prolixity; circumlocution,
ambages [obs3]; periphrase[obs3], periphrasis; roundabout phrases; episode;
expletive; pennya-lining; richness &c. 577.
V. be diffuse &c. adj.; run out on, descant, expatiate, enlarge,
dilate, amplify, expand, inflate; launch out, branch out; rant.
maunder, prose; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104; dwell on, insist upon.
digress, ramble, battre la campagne[Fr][obs3], beat about the bush,
perorate, spin a long yarn, protract; spin out, swell out, draw out;
Adj. diffuse, profuse; wordy, verbose, largiloquent|, copious,
exuberant, pleonastic, lengthy; longsome[obs3], long-winded,
longspun[obs3], long drawn out; spun out, protracted, prolix, prosing,
maundering; circumlocutory, periphrastic, ambagious[obs3], roundabout;
digressive; discursive, excursive; loose; rambling episodic; flatulent,
Adv. diffusely &c. adj.; at large, in extenso[Lat]; about it and about

<-- p. 175 -->

#574. Vigor. -- N. vigor, power, force; boldness, raciness &c. adj.;
intellectual, force; spirit, point, antithesis, piquance, piquancy; verve,
glow, fire, warmth; strong language; gravity, sententiousness; elevation,
loftiness, sublimity.
eloquence; command of words, command of language.
Adj. vigorous, nervous, powerful, forcible, trenchant, incisive,
impressive; sensational.
spirited, lively, glowing, sparkling, racy, bold, slashing; pungent,
piquant, full of point, pointed, pithy, antithetical; sententious.
lofty, elevated, sublime; eloquent; vehement, petulant, impassioned;
Adv. in glowing terms, in good set terms, in no measured terms.
Phr. "thoughts that breath and words that burn" [Gray].

#575. Feebleness. -- N. feebleness &c. adj.
Adj. feeble, bald, tame, meager, jejune, vapid, bland, trashy,
lukewarm, cold, frigid, poor, dull, dry, languid; colorless, enervated;
proposing, prosy, prosaic; unvaried, monotonous, weak, washy, wishy-washy;
sketchy, slight.
careless, slovenly, loose, lax (negligent) 460; slipshod,
slipslop[obs3]; inexact; puerile, childish; flatulent; rambling &c.
(diffuse) 573.

#576. Plainness. -- N. plainness &c. adj.; simplicity, severity; plain
terms, plain English; Saxon English; household words
V. call a spade "a spade"; plunge in medias res; come to the point.
Adj. plain, simple; unornamented, unadorned, unvarnished; homely,
homespun; neat; severe, chaste, pure, Saxon; commonplace, matter-of-fact,
natural, prosaic.
dry, unvaried,monotonous &c. 575.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English, in plain common
parlance; point-blank.

#577. Ornament. -- N. ornament; floridness c[obs3]. adj. turgidity,
turgescence[obs3]; altiloquence &c. adj[obs3].; declamation, teratology|!;
well-rounded periods; elegance &c. 578; orotundity.
inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasia; figurativeness &c.
(metaphor) 521.
flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style,
euphuism[obs3], euphemism.
big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology[obs3],
sesquipedalia verba[Lat], Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant,
bombast, fustian, prose run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality[obs3];
Minerva press.
phrasemonger; euphuist[obs3], euphemist.
V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp.
Adj. ornament &c. v.; beautified &c. 847; ornate, florid, rich,
flowery; euphuistic[obs3], euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big-
sounding; inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous,
stilted; orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical,
declamatory; grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent[obs3];
sesquipedal[obs3], sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian;
frothy, flashy, flaming.
antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c. 521; artificial &c.
(inelegant) 579.
Adv. ore rutundo[Lat].

#578. Elegance. -- N. elegance, purity, grace, ease; gracefulness,
readiness &c. adj.; concinnity[obs3], euphony, numerosity[obs3];
Atticism[obs3], classicalism[obs3], classicism.
well rounded periods, well turned periods, flowing periods; the right
word in the right place; antithesis &c. 577.
V. point an antithesis, round a period.
Adj. elegant, polished, classical, Attic, correct, Ciceronian,
artistic; chaste, pure, Saxon, academical[obs3].
graceful, easy, readable, fluent, flowing, tripping; unaffected,
natural, unlabored[obs3]; mellifluous; euphonious, euphemism, euphemistic;
numerose|, rhythmical.
felicitous, happy, neat; well put, neatly put, well expressed, neatly

<-- p. 176 -->

#579. Inelegance. -- N. inelegance; stiffness &c. adj.; "unlettered
Muse" [Gray]; barbarism; slang &c. 563; solecism &c. 568; mannerism &c.
(affectation) 855; euphuism[obs3]; fustian &c. 577; cacophony; words that
break the teeth, words that dislocate the jaw; marinism[obs3].
V. be inelegant &c. adj.
Adj. inelegant, graceless, ungraceful; harsh, abrupt; dry, stiff,
cramped, formal, guinde[Fr]; forced, labored; artificial, mannered,
ponderous; awkward, uncourtly[obs3], unpolished; turgid &c. 577; affected,
euphuistic[obs3]; barbarous, uncouth, grotesque, rude, crude, halting;
offensive to ears polite.

Spoken Language

#580. Voice. -- N. voice; vocality[obs3]; organ, lungs, bellows; good
voice, fine voice, powerful voice &c. (loud) 404; musical voice &c. 413;
intonation; tone of voice &c. (sound) 402.
vocalization; cry &c. 411; strain, utterance, prolation[obs3];
exclamation, ejaculation, vociferation, ecphonesis[obs3]; enunciation,
articulation; articulate sound, distinctness; clearness, of articulation;
stage whisper; delivery.
accent, accentuation; emphasis, stress; broad accent, strong accent,
pure accent, native accent, foreign accent; pronunciation.
[Word similarly pronounced] homonym.
orthoepy[obs3]; cacoepy[obs3]; euphony &c. (melody) 413.
gastriloquism[obs3], ventriloquism; ventriloquist; polyphonism[obs3],
[Science of voice] phonology &c. (sound) 402.
V. utter, breathe; give utterance, give tongue; cry &c. (shout) 411;
ejaculate, rap out; vocalize, prolate|, articulate, enunciate, pronounce,
accentuate, aspirate, deliver, mouth; whisper in the ear.
Adj. vocal, phonetic, oral; ejaculatory, articulate, distinct,
stertorous; euphonious &c. (melodious) 413.
Phr. "how sweetly sounds the voice of a good woman" [Massinger]; "the
organ of the soul" [Longfellow]; "thy voice is a celestial melody"

#581. Aphony. -- N. aphony[obs3], aphonia[obs3]; dumbness &c. adj.;
obmutescence[obs3]; absence of voice, want of voice; dysphony[obs3];
cacoepy[obs3]; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585; raucity[obs3]; harsh voice
&c. 410, unmusical voice &c. 414; falsetto, "childish treble mute";
V. keep silence &c. 585; speak low, speak softly; whisper &c.
(faintness) 405.
silence; render mute, render silent; muzzle, muffle, suppress,
smother, gag, strike dumb, dumfounder; drown the voice, put to silence,
stop one's mouth, cut one short.
stick in the throat.
Adj. aphonous[obs3], dumb, mute; deafmute, deaf and dumb; mum; tongue-
tied; breathless, tongueless, voiceless, speechless, wordless; mute as a
fish, mute as a stockfish[obs3], mute as a mackerel; silent &c. (taciturn)
585; muzzled; inarticulate, inaudible.
croaking, raucous, hoarse, husky, dry, hollow, sepulchral, hoarse as a
raven; rough.
Adv. with bated breath, with the finger on the lips; sotto voce[Lat];
in a low tone, in a cracked voice, in a broken voice.
Phr. vox faucibus haesit [Lat][Vergil].

#582. Speech. -- N. speech, faculty of speech; locution, talk,
parlance, verbal intercourse, prolation[obs3], oral communication, word of
mouth, parole, palaver, prattle; effusion.
oration, recitation, delivery, say, speech, lecture, harangue, sermon,
tirade, formal speech, peroration; speechifying; soliloquy &c. 589;
allocution &c. 586; conversation &c. 588; salutatory; screed; valedictory
oratory; elocution, eloquence; rhetoric, declamation; grandiloquence,
multiloquence[obs3]; burst of eloquence; facundity[obs3]; flow of words,
command of words, command of language; copia verborum[Lat]; power of
speech, gift of the gab; usus loquendi[Lat].
speaker &c. v.; spokesman; prolocutor, interlocutor; mouthpiece,
Hermes; orator, oratrix[obs3], oratress[obs3]; Demosthenes, Cicero;
rhetorician; stump orator, platform orator; speechmaker, patterer[obs3],
V. speak of; say, utter, pronounce, deliver, give utterance to; utter
forth, pour forth; breathe, let fall, come out with; rap out, blurt out
have on one's lips; have at the end of one's tongue, have at the tip of
one's tongue.
break silence; open one's lips, open one's mouth; lift one's voice,
raise one's voice; give the tongue, wag the tongue; talk, outspeak[obs3];
put in a word or two.
hold forth; make a speech,.deliver a speech &c. n.; speechify,
harangue, declaim, stump, flourish, recite, lecture, sermonize, discourse,
be on one's legs; have one's say, say one's say; spout, rant, rave, vent
one's fury, vent one's rage; expatiate &c. (speak at length) 573; speak
one's mind, go on the stump, take the stump [U. S.].
soliloquize &c. 589; tell &c. (inform) 527; speak to &c. 586; talk
together &c. 588.
be eloquent &c. adj; have a tongue in one's head, have the gift of the
gab &c. n.
pass one's lips, escape one's lips; fall from the lips, fall from the
Adj. speaking &c., spoken &c. v.; oral, lingual, phonetic, not
written, unwritten, outspoken; eloquent, elocutionary; oratorical,
rhetorical; declamatory; grandiloquent &c. 577; talkative &c. 584;
Ciceronian, nuncupative, Tullian.
Adv. orally &c. adj.; by word of mouth, viva voce, from the lips of.
Phr. quoth he, said he &c.; "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; "pour
the full tide of eloquence along" [Pope]; "she speaks poignards and every
word stabs" [Much Ado About Nothing]; "speech is but broken light upon the
depth of the unspoken [G. Eliot]; "to try thy eloquence now 'tis time
[Antony and Cleopatra].

<-- p. 177 -->

#583. [Imperfect Speech.] Stammering. -- N. inarticulateness;
stammering &c. v.; hesitation &c. v.; impediment in one's speech;
titubancy[obs3], traulism|; whisper &c. (faint sound) 405; lisp, drawl,
tardiloquence[obs3]; nasal tone, nasal accent; twang; falsetto &c. (want of
voice) 581; broken voice, broken accents, broken sentences.
brogue &c. 563; slip of the tongue, lapsus linouae [Lat].
V. stammer, stutter, hesitate, falter, hammer; balbutiate|,
balbucinate|, haw, hum and haw, be unable to put two words together.
mumble, mutter; maud|, mauder[obs3]; whisper &c. 405; mince, lisp;
jabber, gibber; sputter, splutter; muffle, mump[obs3]; drawl, mouth; croak;
speak thick, speak through the nose; snuffle, clip one's words; murder the
language, murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English;
mispronounce, missay[obs3].
Adj. stammering &c. v.; inarticulate, guttural, nasal; tremulous;
Adv. sotto voce &c. (faintly) 405[Lat].

#584. Loquacity. -- N. loquacity, loquaciousness; talkativeness &c.
adj.; garrulity; multiloquence[obs3], much speaking.
jaw; gabble; jabber, chatter; prate, prattle, cackle, clack; twaddle,
twattle, rattle; caquet[obs3], caquetterie[Fr]; blabber, bavardage[obs3],
bibble-babble[obs3], gibble-gabble[obs3]; small talk &c. (converse) 588.
fluency, flippancy, volubility, flowing, tongue; flow of words; flux
de bouche[Fr], flux de mots[Fr]; copia verborum[Lat], cacoethes
loquendi[Lat]; furor loquendi[Lat]; verbosity &c. (diffuseness) 573; gift
of the gab &c. (eloquence) 582.
talker; chatterer, chatterbox; babbler &c. v.; rattle; ranter;
sermonizer, proser[obs3], driveler; blatherskite [U. S.]; gossip &c.
(converse) 588; magpie, jay, parrot, poll, Babel; moulin a paroles[Fr]..
V. be loquacious &c. adj.; talk glibly, pour forth, patter; prate,
palaver, prose, chatter, prattle, clack, jabber, jaw; blather,
blatter[obs3], blether[obs3]; rattle, rattle on; twaddle, twattle; babble,
gabble; outtalk; talk oneself out of breath, talk oneself hoarse; expatiate
&c. (speak at length) 573; gossip &c. (converse) 588; din in the ears &c.
(repeat) 104; talk at random, talk nonsense &c. 497; be hoarse with
Adj. loquacious, talkative, garrulous, linguacious|,
multiloquous[obs3]; largiloquent|; chattering &c. v.; chatty &c. (sociable)
892; declamatory &c. 582; open-mouthed.
fluent, voluble, glib, flippant; long tongued, long winded &c.
(diffuse) 573.
Adv. trippingly on the tongue; glibly &c. adj.; off the reel.
Phr. the tongue running fast, the tongue running loose, the tongue
running on wheels; all talk and no cider; "foul whisperings are abroad"
[Macbeth]; "what a spendthrift is he of his tongue!" [Tempest].

<-- p. 178 -->

#585. Taciturnity. -- N. silence, muteness, obmutescence[obs3];
taciturnity, pauciloquy[obs3], costiveness|, curtness; reserve, reticence
&c. (concealment) 528.
man of few words.
V. be silent &c. adj.; keep silence, keep mum; hold one's tongue,
hold one's peace, hold one's jaw; not speak. &c. 582; say nothing, keep
one's counsel; seal the lips, close the lips, button the lips, zipper the
lips, put a padlock on the lips, put a padlock on the mouth; put a bridle
on one's tongue; bite one's tongue, keep one's tongue between one's teeth;
make no sign, not let a word escape one; keep a secret &c. 528; not have a
word to say; hush up, hush, lay the finger on the lips, place the finger on
the lips; render mute &c. 581.
stick in one's throat.
Adj. silent, mute, mum; silent as a post, silent as a stone, silent as
the grave &c. (still) 403; dumb &c. 581; unconversable[obs3].
taciturn, sparing of words; closetongued; costive|, inconversable|,
curt; reserved; reticent &c. (concealing) 528.
Int. shush! tush! silence! mum! hush! chut[obs3]! hist! tut!
chup[obs3]! mum's the word; keep your mouth shut![vulgar].
Phr. cave quid dicis quando et cui[Lat]; volto sciolto i pensieri

#586. Allocution. -- N. allocution, alloquy|, address; speech &c. 582;
apostrophe, interpellation, appeal, invocation, salutation; word in the
[Feigned dialogue] dialogism[obs3].
platform &c. 542; plank; audience &c. (interview) 588.
V. speak to, address, accost, make up to, apostrophize, appeal to,
invoke; ball, salute; call to, halloo.
take aside, take by the button; talk to in private.
lecture &c. (make a speech) 582.
Int. soho[obs3]! halloo! hey! hist!

#587. Response -- N. &c., see Answer 462.

#588. Conversation. -- N. conversation, interlocution;
collocution[obs3], colloquy, converse, confabulation, talk, discourse,
verbal intercourse; oral communication, commerce; dialogue, duologue,
causerie, chat, chitchat; small talk, table talk, teatable talk[obs3],
town talk, village talk, idle talk; tattle, gossip, tittle-tattle; babble,
babblement[obs3]; tripotage[obs3], cackle, prittle-prattle[obs3], cancan,
on dit[Fr]; talk of the town, talk of the village.
conference, parley, interview, audience, pourparler; tete-a-tete;
reception, conversazione[It]; congress &c. (council) 696; powwow [U. S.].
hall of audience, durbar[obs3].
palaver, debate, logomachy[obs3], war of words.
gossip, tattler; Paul Pry; tabby; chatterer &c. (loquacity) 584;
interlocutor &c. (spokesman) 582; conversationist[obs3], dialogist[obs3].
"the feast of reason and the flow of soul" [Pope]; mollia tempora
V. talk together, converse, confabulate; hold on a conversation, carry
on a conversation, join in a conversation, engage in a conversation; put in
a word; shine in conversation; bandy words; parley; palaver; chat, gossip,
tattle; prate &c. (loquacity) 584; powwow [U.S.]..
discourse with, confer with, commune with, commerce with; hold
converse, hold conference, hold intercourse; talk it over; be closeted
with; talk with one in private, tete-a-tete.
Adj. conversing &c. v.; interlocutory; conversational,
conversable[obs3]; discursive, discoursive[obs3]; chatty &c. (sociable)
892; colloquial.
Phr. "with thee conversing I forget all time" [Paradise Lost].

#589. Soliloquy. -- N. soliloquy, monologue, apostrophe;
V. Soliloquize; say to oneself, talk to oneself; say aside, think
aloud, apostrophize.
Adj. soliloquizing &c. v.
Adv. aside.

<-- p. 179 -->
Written Language

#590. Writing. -- N. writing &c. v.; chirography, stelography[obs3],
cerography[obs3]; penmanship, craftmanship[obs3]; quill driving;
writing, manuscript, MS., literae scriptae[Lat]; these presents.
stroke of the pen, dash of the pen; coupe de plume; line; headline;
pen and ink.
letter &c. 561; uncial writing, cuneiform character, arrowhead, Ogham,
Runes, hieroglyphic; contraction; Brahmi[obs3], Devanagari, Nagari; script.
shorthand; stenography, brachygraphy[obs3], tachygraphy[obs3]; secret
writing, writing in cipher; cryptography, stenography; phonography[obs3],
pasigraphy[obs3], Polygraphy[obs3], logography[obs3].
copy; transcript, rescript; rough copy, fair copy; handwriting;
signature, sign manual; autograph, monograph, holograph; hand, fist.
calligraphy; good hand, running hand, flowing hand, cursive hand,
legible hand, bold hand.
cacography[obs3], griffonage[obs3], barbouillage[obs3]; bad hand,
cramped hand, crabbed hand, illegible hand; scribble &c. v.; pattes de
mouche[Fr]; ill-formed letters; pothooks and hangers.
stationery; pen, quill, goose quill; pencil, style; paper, foolscap,
parchment, vellum, papyrus, tablet, slate, marble, pillar, table;
blackboard; ink bottle, ink horn, ink pot, ink stand, ink well; typewriter.
transcription &c. (copy) 21; inscription &c. (record) 551;
superscription &c. (indication) 550; graphology.
composition, authorship; cacoethes scribendi[Lat]; graphoidea[obs3],
graphomania[obs3]; phrenoia[obs3].
writer, scribe, amanuensis, scrivener, secretary, clerk, penman,
copyist, transcriber, quill driver; stenographer, typewriter, typist;
writer for the press &c. (author) 593.
V. write, pen; copy, engross; write out, write out fair; transcribe;
scribble, scrawl, scrabble, scratch; interline; stain paper; write down &c.
(record) 551; sign &c. (attest) 467; enface[obs3].
compose, indite, draw up, draft, formulate; dictate; inscribe, throw
on paper, dash off; manifold.
take up the pen, take pen in hand; shed ink, spill ink, dip one's pen in
Adj. writing &c. v.; written &c. v.; in writing, in black and white;
under one's hand.
uncial, Runic, cuneiform, hieroglyphical[obs3].
Adv. currente calamo[Sp]; pen in hand.
Phr. audacter et sincere[Lat]; le style est l'homme meme [Fr];
"nature's noblest gift - my gray goose quill" [Byron]; scribendi recte
sapere et principium et fons [Lat][Horace]; "that mighty instrument of
little men" [Byron]; "the pen became a clarion" [Longfellow].

#591. Printing. -- N. printing; block printing, type- printing; plate
printing &c. 558[engraving]; the press &c. (publication) 531; composition.
print, letterpress, text; context, note, page, column.
typography; stereotype, electrotype, aprotype[obs3]; type, black
letter, font, fount; pi, pie; capitals &c. (letters) 561; brevier[obs3],
bourgeois, pica &c.
boldface, capitals, caps., catchword; composing-frame, composing room,
composing rule, composing stand, composing stick; italics, justification,
linotype, live matter, logotype; lower case, upper case; make-up, matrix,
matter, monotype[obs3], point system: 4-1/2, 5, 5-1/2, 6, 7, 8 point, etc.;
press room, press work; reglet[obs3], roman; running head, running title;
scale, serif, shank, sheet work, shoulder, signature, slug, underlay.
folio &c. (book) 593; copy, impression, pull, proof, revise; author's
proof, galley proof, press proof; press revise.
printer, compositor, reader; printer's devil copyholder.
V. print; compose; put to press, go to press; pass through the press,
see through the press; publish &c. 531; bring out; appear in print, rush
into print; distribute, makeup, mortise, offset, overrun, rout.
Adj. printed &c. v.; in type; typographical &c. n.; solid in galleys.

<-- p. 180 -->

#592. Correspondence. -- N. correspondence, letter, epistle, note,
billet, post card, missive, circular, favor, billet-doux; chit,
chitty[obs3], letter card, picture post card; postal [U.S.], card;
despatch; dispatch; bulletin, these presents; rescript, rescription[obs3];
post &c. (messenger) 534.
V. correspond with; write to, send a letter to; keep up a
Adj. epistolary.
Phr. furor scribendi[Lat].

<-- Book, periodical should be separated -->

#593. Book. -- N. booklet; writing, work, volume, tome,
opuscule[obs3]; tract, tractate[obs3]; livret[obs3]; brochure, libretto,
handbook, codex, manual, pamphlet, enchiridion[obs3], circular,
publication; chap book.
part, issue, number livraison[Fr]; album, portfolio; periodical,
serial, magazine, ephemeris, annual, journal.
paper, bill, sheet, broadsheet[obs3]; leaf, leaflet; fly leaf, page;
quire, ream
[subdivisions of a book] chapter, section, head, article, paragraph,
passage, clause; endpapers, frontispiece; cover, binding.
folio, quarto, octavo; duodecimo[obs3], sextodecimo[obs3],
encyclopedia; encompilation[obs3].
[collection of books] library, bibliotheca[obs3].
press &c. (publication) 531.
[complete description] definitive work, treatise, comprehensive
treatise (dissertation) 595.
[person who writes a book] writer, author, litterateur[Fr], essayist,
journalism; pen, scribbler, the scribbling race; literary hack, Grub-street
writer; writer for the press, gentleman of the press, representative of the
press; adjective jerker[obs3], diaskeaust[obs3], ghost, hack writer, ink
slinger; publicist; reporter, penny a liner; editor, subeditor[obs3];
playwright &c.

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